Pathophysiology of pulmonary regurgitation

Pulmonic Regurgitation - Cardiovascular Disorders - Merck

  1. Pulmonic (pulmonary) regurgitation (PR) is incompetency of the pulmonic valve causing blood flow from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during diastole. The most common cause is pulmonary hypertension. PR is usually asymptomatic. Signs include a decrescendo diastolic murmur
  2. What is pulmonary regurgitation? Pulmonary regurgitation (PR, also called pulmonic regurgitation) is a leaky pulmonary valve. This valve helps control the flow of blood passing from the right ventricle to the lungs. A leaky pulmonary valve allows blood to flow back into the heart chamber before it gets to the lungs for oxygen
  3. The pulmonic or pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the main pulmonary artery. Its job is to prevent blood from leaking back into the heart between beats. Pulmonary regurgitation occurs when the pulmonary valve doesn't completely close and allows some blood to leak back into the heart

Problem: Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation American Heart

Pulmonary or pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is defined as an abnormal reversal of blood flow from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle. Most often, PR is not the primary process but a finding.. Pulmonic (pulmonary) regurgitation (PR) is incompetency of the pulmonic valve causing blood flow from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during diastole. The most common cause is pulmonary hypertension. PR is usually asymptomatic. Signs include a decrescendo diastolic murmur. Diagnosis is by echocardiography Acquired pulmonary valve regurgitation also typically results from surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis, or atresia. Isolated pulmonary regurgitation is rarely symptomatic; however, large regurgitant volume in the presence of dilated right ventricle may be associated with exertional dyspnea, easy fatigability, and. The etiologies of pulmonic regurgitation (PR) can be classified into physiologic, primary, and secondary causes. Primary causes include iatrogenic, infectious (infective endocarditis), immune-mediated (rheumatic heart disease), systemic (carcinoid disease), and congenital [ 1-3 ] Pulmonary regurgitation is a valvular abnormality with a myriad of etiologies, the most common of which being secondary to the repair of tetralogy of Fallot. In addition to covering the evaluation and management of this condition, it is particularly important to understand the need for pulmonary valve replacement in these patients prior to the.

Pulmonary insufficiency also known as pulmonary regurgitation, pulmonic regurgitation or pulmonic valvular regurgitation, is a condition in which the pulmonary valve — located between your heart's lower right heart chamber (right ventricle) and the artery that delivers blood to the lungs (pulmonary artery) — doesn't work properly by allowing backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole Pulmonary regurgitation usually is acquired and results from pulmonary arterial hypertension. A congenital cause of pulmonary regurgitation is absence of the pulmonary valve, which is associated with tetralogy of Fallot. This malformation has large pulmonary arteries and a narrow pulmonary annulus creating a stenosis

Patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation demonstrate an increased pulse pressure, a rapid dicrotic collapse, and early equilibration of the diastolic pressures between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle 27,28,30 (Figures 7-9 and 7-10) Pulmonary valve regurgitation, also known as pulmonic regurgitation, is a leaky pulmonary valve (the valve that controls the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs). Regurgitation refers to when heart valves leak when the blood flows back through the valve as the leaflets close or when blood leaks through the leaflets when they are closed Pathophysiology of Chronic Pulmonary Regurgitation. Although PR resulting from relief of RV outflow tract obstruction (most typically after transannular repair of TOF) was originally considered to be a benign lesion, it is now evident that chronic PR can cause progressive RV dilatation and dysfunction as a consequence of chronic volume overload Pulmonary regurgitation occurs when the pulmonary valve in the heart doesn't operate properly. During a regular heartbeat, the lower right chamber of the heart, called the right ventricle, pushes blood through the pulmonary artery into the lungs Mitral valve regurgitation causes. Mitral valve regurgitation can be caused by problems with the mitral valve, also called primary mitral valve regurgitation. Diseases of the left ventricle can lead to secondary or functional mitral valve regurgitation. Pulmonary hypertension. If you have long-term untreated or improperly treated mitral.

The pathophysiology is due to diastolic pressure variations between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle, differences are often very small, but increase regurgitation. An elevation in pulmonary insufficiency due to elevated intrathoracic pressure is relevant in ventilated patients (having acute restrictive right ventricular physiology) Pulmonary or pulmonic regurgitation is more rare and is usually a result of other problems like pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary valve regurgitation, also known as pulmonary valve insufficiency or pulmonary valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the pulmonary valve diastole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the pulmonary trunk and into the right ventricle Pulmonary hypertension can occur, resulting in high-pressure pulmonary valve regurgitation. Pulmonary hypertension: a heterogeneous condition of high blood pressure in the pulmonary vasculature that could be idiopathic (without underlying lung or cardiac disease) or from secondary causes The prevalence of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is estimated to have two demographic peaks. The first peak is among young patients with repaired congenital pulmonary stenosis. The second peak is among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The multitude of causes makes the determination of exact prevalence of PR difficult

Left heart related tricuspid regurgitation and precapillary pulmonary tricuspid regurgitation (B) are caused by dilation of the right ventricle, papillary muscle displacement and tethering of the.. Endocarditis is an important cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Factors that can contribute to infection of the valve include alcoholism, intravenous drug use, neoplasms, infected indwelling catheters, extensive burns, and immune deficiency. The clinical presentation is often that of pneumonia from septic pulmonary emboli rather than CHF

You may also notice signs or symptoms of the underlying condition that's causing tricuspid valve regurgitation, such as pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, difficulty exercising and shortness of breath. When to see a docto Figure 2. Pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in mitral regurgitation. Chronic severe mitral regurgitation induces compensatory LV and LA dilation in the initial phase, but over time, leads to LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction, reduced LA compliance, and elevated LA pressure in the decompensated phase. Backward transmission of elevated left atrial pressures can cause disruption of the. Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is frequently found in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. MR can be secondary to a structural or a functional defect of one or several components of the MV. The mechanism (s) of functional MR is the most complex. A precise understanding of the pathophysiology of MR helps resolving.

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Magne J, Lancellotti P, O'Connor K, et al. Prediction of exercise pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr . 2011 Sep. 24(9):1004-12. [Medline] Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle.As a consequence, the cardiac muscle is forced to work harder than normal The pulmonary valve controls the flow of blood from the heart out to the lungs. When this valve leaks, it allows blood to flow backward into the heart before it can travel to the lungs. This leak is known as pulmonary regurgitation and it can be categorized as mild, moderate or severe. What causes pulmonary regurgitation

Pulmonary Regurgitation Children's Hospital of Philadelphi

Pulmonary Regurgitation (Pulmonic Regurgitation): Practice

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common condition, but it is poorly understood with regard to physiology and outcome. 1 The sketchy pathophysiological knowledge of TR 2 emphasized in American Heart Association clinical guidelines 3 and in comprehensive reviews 4 probably contributes to current uncertainties about TR management and outcome. 5 Clinical Perspective on p 151 Pulmonary regurgitation is a condition where the pulmonary valve, which regulates blood flow from the right side of the heart to the lungs, doesn't close properly and a portion of it leaks back to the right side of the heart.. Symptoms of Pulmonary Regurgitation. Symptoms may include: Difficulty breathing and fatigue, especially during exercise; Chest pain, such as squeezing, pressure or tightnes Aetiology. Pulmonary regurgitation may be congenital or acquired. In the acquired form it may result from any left-sided cardiac condition, such as mitral stenosis, or severe pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension. Other known causes are dilation of the pulmonary annulus secondary to pulmonary hypertension or post balloon inflation for. Causes and hemodynamic findings in chronic severe pulmonary regurgitation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2015. Stout KK, Daniels CJ, Aboulhosn JA, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on.


The pulmonary valve allows blood to flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The valves open and close to control or regulate the blood flowing into the heart and then away from the heart. Three of the heart valves are composed of three leaflets or flaps that work together to open and close to allow blood to flow across the opening Isolated pulmonary regurgitation causes decreased right ventricular longitudinal function and compensatory increased septal pumping in a porcine model Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017 Nov;221(3):163-173. doi: 10.1111/apha.12904. Epub 2017 Jun 29. Authors S Kopic 1. Pathophysiology. Pulmonary or pulmonic regurgitation (PR) or incompetence of the pulmonic valve occurs by one of three basic pathologic processes: dilatation of the pulmonic valve ring, acquired alteration of the pulmonic valve leaflet morphology, or congenital absence or malformation of the valve Instead, volume overload in the pulmonary circulation manifests as rales on chest auscultation, which indicate pulmonary edema. Specific Causes of Aortic Regurgitation Exam for Aortic Regurgitation . There are many different causes of aortic regurgitation. For a complete list, look at the end of the page Figure 1.Pathophysiologic Subdivision of Tricuspid Regurgitation. Primary tricuspid regurgitation is caused by abnormalities/damage on the tricuspid valve apparatus (A) (e.g., prolapse of the leaflet or endocarditis). Left heart related tricuspid regurgitation and precapillary pulmonary tricuspid regurgitation (B) are caused by dilation of the right ventricle, papillary muscle displacement and.

Pathophysiology of Mitral insufficiency. Acute. Abrupt elevation of left atrial pressure in the setting of normal LA size and compliance, causing backflow into pulmonary circulation with resultant pulmonary edema. As cardiac output decreases because of decreased forward flow, hypotension and shock can occur; Chroni Pg 120 Predictably, pulmonary insufficiency was an issue and 21 percent of patients required at least one reintubation, tracheostomy was necessary in 8.2, and 5. 1 percent could not be weaned Pg 122 Cardiac dysrhythmias, pneumonia, and pulmonary insufficiency constitute the most common causes of morbidity, just as with LVRS

Pulmonary valve disease is often accompanied by pulmonary regurgitation (PR) as a result of inherent abnormalities of the valve or from prior intervention. This review will focus primarily on isolated forms of pulmonary valve disease in adults. Abnormalities of the pulmonary valve, subvalvar or supravalvar region can lead to RVOT obstruction Pathophysiology of Repaired TOF Pulmonary Regurgitation After TOF Repair Relief of RVOT obstruction in TOF often involves dis-ruption of pulmonary valve integrity, which leads to PR in the majority patients. Both experimental evidence and clinical data have shown that the severity of PR can increase over time [18-20]. The degree of PR is deter Causes and Pathophysiology of Right Ventricular Failure. The normal RV function is an interplay between preload, contractility, afterload, ventricular interdependence and heart rhythm. (e.g. atrial septal defect with relevant left-to-right shunt or severe pulmonary regurgitation in repaired Fallot's tetralogy), chronic volume overload may.

Compared with the vast literature concerning the prevalence, pathophysiology, and outcome of left valvular disease, the data concerning tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is very limited. In this review we summarized the present data concerning these important issues. We show that TR is as prevalent as ao Exercise echocardiography has its role in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation, by providing information on the severity of the regurgitation and the hemodynamic abnormalities (e.g., pulmonary hypertension) during exercise. 38 It is a useful tool to evaluate symptoms in patients that appear to have only mild regurgitation, to determine the. Acute mitral regurgitation typically produces signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure, such as dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and fatigue, coughing, dizziness, and an irregular heartbeat. The leaky heart valve symptoms tend to be severe, and shortness of breath may worsen with activity and when lying flat

Location of the aortic valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve inside your heart. How common is heart valve leakage? Leaky heart valves are fairly common. Approximately 10% of the total population has one. Mitral valve regurgitation is the most common type. Mild cases of leaking usually do not cause any symptoms or problems Dr. Hamid Hai answered. 55 years experience Cardiology. Mitral regurgitation: No, a trace of mitral regurgitation is normal. If such a person is short of breath, there are usually other causes. Significant heart or lung problems. Aortic regurgitation murmur is a diastolic decrescendo murmur best heard at the left sternal border. The common cause of chronic aortic regurgitation are Rheumatic fever, bicuspid aortic valve, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis Introduction. Pulmonary aspiration (PA) of gastric contents is a rare but dangerous perioperative complication that potentially causes anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality (1,2).PA can result in aspiration pneumonia, aspiration pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and subsequent bacterial infection through particle-, acid- and bacteria-related mechanisms ()

Pulmonary regurgitation - Symptoms, diagnosis and

Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a common complication after surgical or percutaneous relief of pulmonary stenosis and following repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Significant PR is usually well tolerated in childhood. However, in the long term, chronic PR has a detrimental effect on right ventricular (RV) function and exercise capacity and leads to. Cor pulmonale is RV enlargement and eventually failure secondary to a lung disorder that causes pulmonary artery hypertension. Cor pulmonale itself is usually asymptomatic but common physical findings include a left parasternal systolic lift, a loud pulmonic component of S2, functional tricuspid and pulmonic insufficiency murmurs, and later. What is the role of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with tricuspid regurgitation (TR) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve repair (TTVR)? Methods: The authors reported the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and risk stratification of PH in patients with severe TR and its impact on outcomes after TTVR from a cohort of 243 patients. Mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve regurgitation occurs when the mitral valve fails to close completely during ventricular systole, which causes blood to flow back (regurgitate) into the left atrium (LA) as the left ventricle (LV) contracts (see figure at right). This causes the left atrium to be become engorged with blood because blood is. This causes pulmonary congestion.MOHAMMAD ALADAM 12. Compensated: If the mitral regurgitation develops slowly over months to years or if the acute phase can be managed with medical therapy, the individual will enter the chronic compensated phase of the disease

Pulmonic regurgitation - UpToDat

Pulmonary valve insufficiency or regurgitation is the valvulopathy characterized by the presence of diastolic retrograde flow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle. If severe, this regurgitation leads, in time, to the appearance of right ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. This condition can be primary (congenital- as a stand alone disease or in association with Marfan. Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in anatomic and functional abnormalities in the majority of patients. Although right ventricular volume load due to severe pulmonary regurgitation can be tolerated for many years, there is now evidence that the compensatory mechanisms of the right ventricular myocardium ultimately fail and that if the volume load is not eliminated or. Pathophysiology. The pathophysiology is due to diastolic pressure variations between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle, differences are often very small, but increase regurgitation.An elevation in pulmonary insufficiency due to elevated intrathoracic pressure is relevant in ventilated patients (having acute restrictive right ventricular physiology) Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a highly prevalent valvular heart disease. Whereas primary/organic TR (caused by a structural abnormality) is relatively infrequent, secondary or functional TR (caused by dilatation of the tricuspid annulus and remodelling of the right ventricle and right atrium) is the predominant cause, and isolated TR, associated with atrial fibrillation, is an emerging entity Mitral valve regurgitation is when the mitral valve in the heart is leaky. It's also known as mitral insufficiency. The mitral valve is one of the heart's four valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart's four chambers and out to the body. The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Normally, the mitral valve prevents blood flowing back into the left.

Pulmonary Regurgitation Article - StatPearl

Figure 3 -- Pathophysiology of acute and chronic mitral regurgitation Fig 3: Pathophysiology of mitral regurgitation . In the normal heart, left ventricular (LV) contraction during systole forces blood exclusively through the aortic valve into the aorta; the closed mitral valve prevents regurgitation into the left atrium (LA) Mitral Regurgitation is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult. (LA); uncompensated, this leads to LV and LA enlargement, elevated pulmonary pressures, atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (HF), and sudden cardiac death. Types of mitral regurgitation (MR):. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common lesion of the tricuspid valve (TV). Mild TR is common and usually is benign. However, moderate or severe TR can lead to irreversible myocardial damage and adverse outcomes. Despite these findings, few patients with significant TR undergo surgery. The treatment of functional (secondary) TR in. Acute severe aortic regurgitation (AR) comes about when there is rapid disruption of the anatomic integrity of the aortic valve. As a consequence, the sudden imposition of a large regurgitant volume leads to a precipitous increase in left ventricular diastolic pressure and a decrease in forward stroke volume

Signs and Symptoms. Children with pulmonary valvar stenosis are usually asymptomatic and in normal health. A heart murmur is the most common sign detected by a physician indicating that a valve problem may be present. Children with mild-to-moderate degrees of pulmonary valve stenosis have easily detectable heart murmurs, but typically do not have any symptoms Any disorder that causes damage to the valve leaflets or widening of the valve annulus will result in regurgitation. There is seldom a primary lesion affecting the pulmonary valve resulting in valvular insufficiency. Instead, pulmonary insufficiency is more commonly a complication of pulmonary hypertension Pathophysiology. Tricuspid regurgitation decreases the amount of blood returning into the right atrium and, if severe enough, will limit cardiac output. and multiple causes of pulmonary. A review of mitral regurgitation (MR) including the causes, etiology, pathophysiology, physical examination, diagnosis and treatment. Multiple choice and cased based questions included

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Pulmonary insufficiency, pulmonary valve regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation Causes of mitral regurgitation. The most common cause of mitral regurgitation in high-income countries is age-related degeneration of the valvular apparatus. Age-related degeneration affects 2% of the population and leads to gradual prolapse of the valve leaflets (Figure 1) Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the leakage of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium due to incomplete closure of the mitral valve during. systole. . It is a common form of valvular disease and categorized according to onset (into acute and chronic forms) and etiology. Primary MR

NSG 5003 Midterm Exam 2020: Advanced pathophysiology: South University Question 1 2 points In examination of the nose the clinician observes gray pale mucous membranes with clear serous discharge. This is most likely indicative of: Question 1 options: a Bacterial sinusitis b Allergic rhinitis c Drug abuse d Skull fracture Save Question 2 2 points Your patient complains of a feeling of. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic state that is characterized by a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure ≧ 25 mmHg. The common forms of PH are pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The shared pathophysiology of this group involves a passive backward transmission of filling pressures that increases mPAP (e.g., loss of left atrial compliance, diastolic dysfunction, mitral regurgitation), a further increase in mPAP (e.g., endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction), and eventual worsening pulmonary vascular remodeling, right. Pulmonary valve regurgitation is a fairly common congenital heart problem and can be caused from surgical treatment of primary congenital pulmonary valve disease or Tetralogy of Fallot. Pulmonary valve regurgitation is a condition where the pulmonary valve does not work properly allowing blood to flow back into the right ventricle A 12-minute recorded lecture on this topic can be viewed by clicking on Aortic Regurgitation Pathophysiology. Pulmonary valve regurgitation has a similar hemodynamic basis as aortic regurgitation except that the changes in pressures and volumes are noted on the right side of the heart (pulmonary artery, right ventricle, and right atrium)

Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency - an overview

Chacko J, Brar G, Mundlapudi B, Kumar P. Papillary muscle dysfunction due to coronary slow-flow phenomenon presenting with acute mitral regurgitation and unilateral pulmonary edema. Indian J Crit. Pulmonary emboli can result in any of the following: Embolus with infarction: causes the death of a portion of the lung tissue. Embolus without infarction: doesn't cause permanent lung injury since perfusion of the affected segment is maintained. Massive occlusion: blocks a major portion of the pulmonary circulation Pulmonary regurgitation. Increases with inspiration. Aortic insufficiency. Sometimes best heard if the patient is made to site up, lean forward and breathe out fully while the stethoscope at the left side of the lower part of the sternum. Mitral stenosis. Best heard as the patient is rolled onto left side with stethoscope bell at apex Causes of Pulmonary Vascular Disease. A damaged mitral valve in the heart (mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation) may contribute to pulmonary venous hypertension

Pulmonary Insufficiency - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent hemodynamic condition that is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Irrespective of left ventricular EF, the presence of PH and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are highly relevant for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. While elevated left-sided filling. Φ Usually above 50 years of age or in conditions of impaired relaxation, in the absence of mitral stenosis or other causes of elevated LA pressure. ς Minimal and large flow convergence defined as a flow convergence radius < 0.4 cm and ≤ 0.9 cm for central jets, respectively, with a baseline shift at a Nyquist of 40 cm/s; Cut-offs for.

Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation Cardiology Mercy Healt

Pulmonary regurgitation causes Drugs/medication for pulmonary regurgitation Mild pulmonary regurgitation Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis causes Download Here Free HealthCareMagic App to Ask a Doctor. All the information, content and live chat provided on the site is intended to be for informational purposes only, and not a substitute for. Pulmonary regurgitation. Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) occurs when there is backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole. Pulmonary regurgitation is rare. Aetiology. Causes of pulmonary regurgitation include: Pulmonary hypertension; Infective endocarditis; Congenital valvular heart diseas Pulmonary regurgitation is caused by the backflow of blood into your right ventricle when your pulmonary valve can't close completely. Stenosis is a narrowing or stiffening of your heart valves

Septic Shock Fluid Resuscitation | EpomedicineCardiac PAthophysiology - StudyBlueTricuspid Regurgitation | Concise Medical KnowledgeAortic stenosis pathophysiology - wikidoc

The diastolic murmur of pulmonary regurgitation is very similar to the one of aortic regurgitation. It is a decrescendo diastolic murmur with a blowing character. However, contrary to the one of aortic regurgitation, this murmur is loudest at the left upper sternal border, around the 2 nd and 3 rd intercostal spaces SIPE is a form of hemodynamic pulmonary edema caused by an exaggerated increase in pulmonary vascular pressures in response to immersion in water, intense physical activity and host factors. 10,11 Prior evaluation supports a hydrostatic mechanism of pulmonary edema but the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. 10 In normal subjects, acute. Most of the tricuspid regurgitation causes are due to complications from other conditions, including those summarized in the list below: Pulmonic stenosis: Obstruction of blood flow from the right. Echocardiography to evaluate pulmonary arterial pressures is recommended for patients with obstructive sleep apnea and edema.27, 28 In one study of patients with obstructive sleep apnea, 93% of.

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the NewbornCor-triatriatum dexter with pulmonary hypertension in a

The most common parenchymal manifestations of acute mitral regurgitation are symmetric alveolar and interstitial pulmonary edema with indistinct, engorged pulmonary vessels and cephalized blood flow. Familiarity with these manifestations can expedite diagnosis, particularly in rare cases of unsuspected mitral valve disease Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a condition that occurs when the venous wall and/or valves in the leg veins are not working effectively, making it difficult for blood to return to the heart from the legs. CVI causes blood to pool or collect in these veins, and this pooling is called stasis. Valve Inside Vein There is mitral annular calcification with thickening of the mitral leaflets. E:A reversal and moderately severe regurgitation. There is moderate pulmonary regurgitation with a pulmonary recoil spectral envelope. The other valves as well as the great vessels, appear normal with mild tricuspid regurgitation; estimated RVSP is 37.8 mmHg There are several causes of cardiac insufficiency. The most common cause is hypertension in more than 50% of the cases which may result in coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiac insufficiency. Other more uncommon causes are atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart diseases, high-output heart failure or pericardial. An early diastolic murmur due to pulmonary insufficiency may be heard if pulmonary hypertension develops. Pulmonary hypertension diminishes the pulmonary blood flow and makes CHF unlikely (honeymoon before the development of Eisenmenger syndrome). Cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly may be present if CHF is present These include valve infection, traumatic causes, birth defects and damage from pacemaker leads amongst other causes. Secondary tricuspid regurgitation is caused by factors leading to annulus enlargement, such as right ventricular failure or enlargement, or severely elevated pressures in the right side of the heart such as pulmonary hypertension