Blood collection procedure

  1. Collection Procedure-Line Draw: Shut off intravenous (IV) fluids infusing through line and clamp lumen. Disinfect top of blood culture bottles with an alcohol pad. Clean hep-lock cap with a ChloraPrep® One-Step Sepp® Applicator. Allow to dry before proceeding (at least 30 seconds)
  2. ed volume of blood. Tubes with different additives are used for collecting blood specimens for specific types of tests. The color of cap is used to identify these additives
  3. An apheresis blood donation is the process of blood collected via a special machine to separate it during the donation, so that only certain parts of the blood are collected and the remainder returned to the donor. This allows more of a single component, such as red blood cells or platelets, to be collected in one sitting
  4. The information given in this section underpins that given in the remainder of Part II for specific situations. Chapter 4also provides information relevant to the procedure for drawing blood given below in Section 2.2, but focuses on blood collection from donors. Institutions can use these guidelines to establish standard operating procedures

Collect drops of blood into the collection tube/device by gentle pressure on the finger. Avoid excessive pressure or milking that may squeeze tissue fluid into the drop of blood. Cap, rotate and invert the collection device to mix the blood collected This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) describes a procedure for collection of whole blood, serum, plasma and buffy coat using red-top serum tubes and purple-top tubes containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. It also includes instructions for designation and transfer of certain collections to the Central GAPPS laboratory for isolation of Maternal PBMCs 10 Steps for Proper Blood Culture Collection A Blood Culture is one of the most important laboratory tests because it is used to help determine if a patient has bacteremia/septicemia, a life-threatening condition. Blood is a sterile fluid, and a normal, healthy patient does not have bacteria in the blood. However, many bacteria do colonize the.

Blood Collection Process: Venipuncture » Pathology

Procedure for blood collection Restrain animal with snare, securely contained against a wall or corner; alternatively swine can be placed in a sling, smaller pigs can be held or placed in v-trough. Clean as needed to remove superficial dirt and debris Blood Collection: Step by Step. 1. Get Started. Greet client and verify identity. Offer client a seat. Explain blood collection procedure. Gently restrain children as necessary. Universal/Standard Precautions . 2. Get It Together. 1. Start with a clean work area. 2. Wash or sanitize hands. 3. Gather supplies: • Disposable gloves • 70%. Press down on the gauze once the needle is out of the arm, applying adequate pressure to avoid formation of a hematoma. 14. Discard the used needles and syringe immediately after use which virtually eliminates transmission of blood borne pathogens. 15 An order must be obtained.  Sample collection for blood cultures does not require a discard amount before collection, but other laboratory tests require a discard amount. It is advised to collect cultures before collecting blood for other laboratory test. Thereby, the blood culture collection will serve as the discard amount The BD Vacutainer ® blood specimen collection portfolio includes products for both capillary and venous blood draw. Capillary collection Our BD Microtainer ® product offerings include microtubes for automated process, contact-activated capillary collection lancets and heel lancets for infant blood draw

Aim: Effective Separation of blood products Purpose: To standardize separating procedures so that research samples will be uniform in quality The decision to collect anticoagulated (plasma, buffy coat, RBC) or coagulated (serum, clot) blood samples must be made prior to collection so that proper blood draw tubes will be used Use a sterile blood collection tube. When drawing blood for cultures, wipe the stopper with a suitable antiseptic solution. Check the stopper to make certain it is dry before performing the venipuncture. Insert the blood collection tube into the holder and onto the needle up to the recessed guideline on the needle holder Venous blood obtained by venipuncture: Label collection tubes and pre-cleaned slides (preferably frosted-end) with the patient's name (or other identifier) and date and time of collection. Clean the site well with alcohol; allow to dry Blood sampling or blood collection method is an essential procedure in modern medicine. The blood can be taken from a vein where it is called venous blood collection or arteries where it is called arterial blood collection. Minute quantities of blood can be taken from various sites by pricking the skin. Image of venous samplin To standardize the venous and arterial blood specimen collection procedures for medical laboratory testing. These guidelines are appropriate for adoption by all health care providers responsible for blood specimen's collection in outpatient and inpatient setting. 1.2

Blood Donation Types and Collection Procedures America's

  1. PROCEDURE: A. Prior to initiation of phlebotomy for purpose of blood sampling 1. Check for signed, dated approved consent form, signed physician's orders, and completed inclusion/exclusion criteria form. 2. Ascertain the subject's ID, name, date of birth. Assess the subject's understanding of the study and the procedure to done at this.
  2. A. Venipuncture Procedure for use with winged infusion Safety Lock Vacutainer Blood Collection Set, Vacutainer evacuated tube system or syringe method. 1. Gather needed supplies to include tourniquet, 70% isopropyl alcohol pad, 2% iodine sepps, vacutainer tubes needed for tests ordered, dry gauze pads and medical tape
  3. For suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) draw one set through device and one set from a separate venipuncture. Blood cultures from both line and venipuncture must be positive for same organism with clinical signs and symptoms and no other recognized source
  4. utes to take a blood sample. Blood samples are taken in the arm, hand, finger or ear, depending on the analysis to be made

Best practices in phlebotomy - WHO Guidelines on Drawing

Blood Collection Procedure. Capillary Blood Collection: The site is selected usually the fingertip or earlobe in adults and great toe or heel in infants. The selected site is massaged and cleaned with Doctor's alcohol. The skin is air dried because if it remains wet, blood will run all over and not collected into a drop.. A limited number of test procedures can be done on micro blood samples. Microtest procedures generally require blood sample collection ranging from 0.1-0.6 mL (100- 600 uL) Come to donate blood 7/7 - 7/31 & receive a $10 Gift Card via email. Schedule today blood collection is located on the inside surface of their elbow. e. they can ask any questions that they may have about the procedures at any time or ask to stop the procedure at any time. 4. If fasting blood samples are required, participants are informed in-person, by telephon Technical information on blood collection, incubation and shipping 37°C 1. Blood collection • Collect 1 ml of blood by venipuncture into each QFT blood collection tube. • T ubes should be at 17-25°C at the time of blood lling. • QFT blood collection tubes have been validated for volumes ranging from 0.8 ml to 1.2 ml

SOP: BLOOD COLLECTION IN SHEEP 1 I. Procedure Summary and Goal Describes procedures for blood collection via the jugular vein in sheep. The right and left external jugular veins are large superficial veins that lie within the jugular furrow, a groove on each side of the neck dorsolateral to the trachea. Considerations a collection procedure before collecting blood samples at a crime scene. Officers should collect wet blood as a stain on a piece of air-dried, clean white cloth that has been thoroughly rinsed to remove soap. Officers should allow wet blood stains found on clothing or other transportabl 8. Recognize complications associated with the phlebotomy procedure. 9. Assess the need for sample recollection and/or rejection. 10. Label the collection tubes at the bedside or drawing area. 11. Promptly send the specimens with the requisition to the laboratory. Equipment The following are suggested supplies for blood specimen collection •Send Blood Collection Tubes to the Proper Laboratories: •Appropriately labeled blood collection tubes should be sent to laboratories designated to perform the required testing procedures. Maintain proper transport conditions to preserve specimen integrity. 56 8.1 SPECIMEN COLLECTION PROCEDURE Page 1 of 3 OCCULT BLOOD FOR HEMOSURE® IFOB TEST (FIT) Document number LA-75-WI-076E_03.30 Revision date 2019-May-30 Required Specimen Type Two stool samples from two consecutive bowel movements. Medical Supplies Occult Blood Kit - Immunological (acquire the specific collection kit from your doctor o

Blood Collection Procedures and Transport When submitting blood specimens, please follow these guidelines: • Fasting specimens are usually the specimens of choice, especially for chemistry procedures. • Hemolysis and lipemia frequently interfere with many reactions. Provide serum or plasma free from hemolysis and lipemia if at all possible The method of blood collection to be used, the intervals between blood collection procedures, and the volume of blood to be removed, must be listed in the approved protocol specific to each study. The ULAM veterinary staff provides the following criteria to determine the maximum safe amount of blood to be withdrawn

In the past, some of our blood collection procedures resulted in clots within the anticoagulant tubes. That is why an important addition to any laboratory's guidelines or standard operating procedures (SOP) is a suggestion to carefully mix the specimen periodically during collection to avoid clotting Blood cultures → Light Blue → Red, Gold or Speckled → Green → Lavender → Gray → Yellow ACDC . 5. Note: When using a winged blood collection set for venipuncture and a coagulation tube is the first to be drawn, draw a discard tube first. The discard tube should be a non-additive or a coagulation tube. 6 The method of blood collection to be used, the intervals between blood collection procedures, and the volume of blood to be removed, should be listed in the approved protocol specific to each study. BACKGROUND: The method and volume of blood to be collected will depend on the animal species, frequency of collection, and experimental needs

Venipuncture - Wikipedia

Blood Specimen Collection and Processin

SKIN PUNCTUREThis method is commonly used in infants and smallchildren and if the amount of blood required is small. Itis suitable for cell counts, estimatio.. Being a veterinarian and behavioral scientist, I recognized a need for refining the common blood collection procedure (Fig. 1). I thought that the intelligent nature of monkeys [19-23] should make it possible to condition them to cooperate during blood collection in their home environment. Anecdotal reports of laboratory monkeys and apes. • Blood collection from the saphenous or lateral tarsal vein can be used in both rats and mice by piercing the vein with a needle [23-25G: mouse, 21-23G: rat]. • The procedure is customarily done on an unanaesthetized animal, but effective restraint i How to safely collect blood samples from persons suspected to be infected with highly infectious blood-borne pathogens (e.g. Ebola) Step 1a : Assemble equipment for collecting blood: Laboratory sample tubes for blood collection (sterile glass or plastic tubes with rubber caps, vacuum-extraction blood tubes, or glass tubes with screw caps). EDTA.

Specimen Collection Procedure - PERFORMING A VENIPUNCTURE


This video describes capillary blood collection, when it is required and how it is done. It contains detailed information on equipment and materials, punctur.. Blood bank specimens (pink top tubes for blood type, Coombs tests, etc.) require the date of collection and the collector's initials. If you have any questions, please contact Liz Klinger, Blood Bank Supervisor, at 484.476.8409. Specimens may be labeled by either writing on the blood collection tube label or by affixing a label

Blood collection by cardiac puncture can yield a large sample amount, is a terminal procedure and should be performed only after ensuring that the animal is under deep anesthesia. Fluid replacement is not necessary for this termina All non-terminal blood collection without replacement fluids is limited to 10% of the total circulating blood volume of a healthy animal during a 2 week period. On average, the total circulating blood volume is equal to 5.5 -7.0 % (~66 ml/kg) of the animal's body weight. If larger amounts are needed, then up to 15 % of the total circulating. A method for collecting and filtering biological material from blood and other fluids during a surgical procedure includes: attaching a first cover including a suction port and an intake port to a collection trap; attaching a suction source to the suction port; attaching an instrument to the intake port, through which blood and tissue are suctioned and received into the collection trap; filing. 2.3 Blood Collection Officer . As mentioned, a qualified DCO may perform the duties assigned to the BCO. Qualifications: • Possesses qualifi. c. ations in phlebotomy recognized by the relevant public authorities, with experience in . Sample. collection. • Approved by the authorized collection agency to conduct the Blood Collection Procedure. 6.3.1 increasing number of blood collection procedures is the key driver of market growth table 38 needles & syringes available in the market table 39 blood collection needles & syringes market, by region, 2017-2019 (usd million) table 40 blood collection needles & syringes market, by region, 2020-2025 (usd million) 6.4 blood bag

WHO guidelines on drawing bloo

blood collection: routine venipuncture and specimen handling Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website BACT/ALERT Culture Media provides a wide range of media bottles to rapidly and reliably recover an array of microorganisms, including bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, and yeasts from various sample types. BACT/ALERT Culture Media is FDA-cleared for blood, sterile body fluids, and platelets, and can detect 98% of isolates within 72 hours. 1 PROCEDURE OF THE BLOOD COLLECTION BY SYRINGE METHOD ⇒ Firstly ensure that the patient should be in the comfortable position. ⇒ Now decide the amount of blood required and select the appropriate vials or containers according to the tests to be done. ⇒ Now ensure the patient what is to be done. ⇒ Lay the arm of the patient on the table. ⇒ Apply the tourniquet and select the prominent. Vasodilation can be induced by administering acepromazine 5-10 minutes before blood collection. 2 - The fur will be clipped from the outer ears, if this is necessary to visualize the vessels. The veins (lateral vessels) can be used for smaller volumes of blood, however larger volumes are best collected from the artery (central vessel) Blood sample collection procedure consists of a chain of events and no portion of this sequence is trivial in order to maintain high-quality clinical results, and more importantly, consistent and repeatable clinical results. Studying the chain of events of the blood sample collection procedure, we will understand that it is typically designated.

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Blood Collection Procedure: Capillary » Pathology

B. PREPARING FOR BLOOD COLLECTION . All personnel engaging in specimen collection should be well-trained and thoroughly familiar with the collection procedure. The skill with which any collection procedure is performed will greatly influence overall specimen quality. All needed equipment should be available and within easy reach Collection of blood from Neonates ages 0 through 3 months, this must be done by an experienced phlebotomist or a pediatric nurse. Heel stick is the only acceptable manner of collection for laboratory personnel in this age group unless infant weight is 21 pounds or greater than an arm draw can be performed Appointments are required for blood collection service. This location offers online appointment bookings. Visit https://booking.nshealth.ca to book your own appointment.. Patients can book their own appointment for blood collection service by calling 902-928-2830 from 8:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Monday to Friday (excluding holidays) Because cord blood is typically collected after the baby is delivered and the cord is cut, the procedure is generally safe for the mother and baby, explains Keith Wonnacott, Ph.D., Chief of. This is the EDRN recommended Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the collection and processing of blood biospecimens for screening of ovarian cancer. Ovarian Blood SOP.pdf — 523.8 KB Site Ma

ViaCord's advanced cord blood collection bag is pre-filled with citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD), an FDA-recommended anticoagulant that also functions as a cell preservative. 11 CPD collection bags have been proven to increase stem cell yield by more than 50% compared to heparin collection bags — a key consideration for physicians with regard to treatment success. This procedure is to be performed by or under close supervision of experienced personnel. Whenever possible alternative methods* of blood collection such as sub-mandibular (preferred method) or saphenous sampling should be consider. This technique may yield a large sample volume so will not be appropriate for frequent small blood volume collection

Guidelines for Collection of Blood from Laboratory Animals These guidelines have been developed to introduce investigative staff to procedures recommended for blood collection in laboratory animals. This document is intended to supplement hands-on instruction by an experienced member of your laboratory. Blood Samplin Blood collection and preservation 1. COLLECTION &PRESERVATION OF BLOOD 2. It is a blood collection used an all labs to find out why symptoms are appear in the patient Phlebotomy(to cut a vein in Greek) is the process of making incision in a vein. A person who practices phlebotomy is termed as phlebotomist BLOOD COLLECTION PROCEDURES The following steps outline the basic proc edures for blood collection in the T1DGC study. 1. Confirm that you have the correct ID labels for each participant. Locate the T1DGC Blood Collection Form: Original Collection for each participant in the family and

In test group, a strict blood collection procedure was carried out by trained nurses with the veinpuncture sites were scrupulously disinfected with 2.5% tincture of iodine plus 70% alcohol. In control group, commonly used procedure in PUMCH was performed with 0.45% chlorhexidine acetate plus 0.2% iodine. Blood culture positive results for 4. Phlebotomy Venipuncture Procedure POSTED-LIS PRINCIPLE: This policy establishes criteria for the correct collection of blood specimens by venipuncture. POLICY: By establishing a procedure for the correct collection of blood by venipuncture many pre-analytical errors and patient management complications can be avoided. Patient safety is the ultimat Specimen collection and processing procedures Proper specimen collection and handling is an integral part of obtaining a valid and timely laboratory test result. Specimens must be obtained in the proper tubes or containers, correctly labeled, and then promptly transported to the laboratory collection and prep pads for blood gas collection. However, the use of alcohol-based preparations for these procedures is increasing because many patients are allergic to povidone-iodine. A list of antiseptics used in blood collection is shown in Box 7-1

Draw 12 mL of whole blood for each 5 mL of serum or plasma needed. Collect in an appropriate collection tube. Centrifuge for at least 15 minutes at 2200-2500 RPM. Pipette the serum or plasma into a clean plastic screw-cap vial and attach the label. Do not transfer red cells to the vial Leukapheresis Procedure. You and your physician have decided that a treatment with Provenge® is advisable. The Blood Connection partners with Dendreon as a collection center at our Spartanburg, South Carolina location. The first step in Provenge prostate cancer treatment is collecting blood components used to perform leukapheresis

Venipuncture Procedure - There's More Than One Way To Get

Policy and Procedure Creation Date: 03/29/2011 Document Owner: Corson, Karen Pagination: Page 1 of 6 Subject/Title: Blood Collection Adverse Reactions and Patient Blood Volumes Approved By and Title: Bill Pettross, M. D. Director of FRHG Laboratories Effective Date: 04/21/2011 Date of Revision/Review: 04/21/201 SPECIMEN COLLECTION PROCEDURE Page 1 of 1 THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING Document number LA-75-WI-120E_03.20 Revision date 2018-Jun-11 Required specimen type • Blood sample Medical supplies • Tube (refer to section 6 Individual Tests of the catalogue) A blood culture is a fairly routine test that identifies a disease-causing organism in the blood, especially in patients who have temperatures that is higher than normal, for an unknown reason. The test is relatively simple for the patient and involves a simple blood draw planning blood collection or administration procedures on animals. Exceptions to these guidelines may be approved by the IACUC based on written scientific justification provided by the investigator. For species or guidelines not listed, the Attending Veterinarian and LAR clinical veterinarians can assist with the selection of appropriate. Collect blood into the BD PPT™ following standard procedure for venipuncture and sample collection. Permit the vacuum tube to fill completely. Failure to fill the tube will cause an improper blood-to-anticoagulant ratio and may yield questionable and/or QNS test results

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Earlobes are used for arterial blood as a possible substitute for arterial blood to assess pH, pCO2, and pO2. Treatment of blood collection complications: If the patient becomes faint, stop the blood-taking procedure and lie down the patient with raised foot end. Remove the needle and give assurance to the patient. Talk to patients Cardiac Puncture Blood Collection (Terminal Procedure) SOP #PRO-002 Equipment required: • Mouse: 23-25 gauge needle and 1-3 ml syringe • Rat: 20-25 gauge needle and 10-20 ml syringe • Anesthesia Technique: 1. Anesthetize animal. (Surgical plane of anesthesia is required!) 2. Test for reaction by corneal reflex and toe pinch. 3 The collection must occur within the first fifteen minutes after birth. The laboratory should process the cord blood sample within two days. Both methods should take less than five minutes to complete and should not cause mother or baby any discomfort. The collection procedure should not interfere with birth or later bonding and can be. Standard Operating Procedure Title: MP10_02 - Blood Culture Collection Procedure CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY This document contains proprietary information which may not be reproduced, transcribed, or conveyed in any way or for any purpose without the prior written consent of BEEBE HEALTHCARE LABORATORY. Printouts of this document may be ou the blood collection procedure, thus decreasing the risk of infection. A stopcock should be placed and used for the rare collection necessary from a lumen with a cytotoxic medication infusion to reduce potential employee exposure. Lumen with IV infusion and stopcock in place

Collecting a Specimen Sample: 3 Methods Examine

Attach the needle to the barrel (some blood collection systems come pre-assembled, such as the butterfly needle with barrel shown in the video). 3. Unsheathe the needle. 4. Anchor the vein from below with your non-dominant hand by gently pulling on the skin distal to the insertion site Collection of Diagnostic Venous Blood Specimens. provides a descriptive, stepwise process and procedures reflecting the quality system essentials format for diagnostic venous blood specimen collection. Special considerations for collections from vascular access devices, blood culture collection, an Follow the Venipuncture procedure, PHL- 1 for general venipuncture guidelines. See Collection Notes 1 at the end of the procedure if 2 sets of blood cultures are ordered. 1. Position the patient (See PHL -1) 2. Tie tourniquet. (See PHL-1) 3. Select a vein and release tourniquet. (See PHL-1) 4

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Effective Date: 9/8/2016 Ver: 3.0 Doc #: 44614 Visual Storyboard - Blood Collection Procedure Committee (IACUC). The method of blood collection to be used, the intervals between blood collection procedures, and the volume of blood to be removed must be listed in the approved protocol specific to each study. Contact the LAR veterinary staff (ext. 5-2356) or lar@iu.edu if training is needed on specific blood collection methods and techniques Arterial blood collection - part 1 of 2. The collection of arterial specimens with glass syringes and immediate storage in iced water was the accepted industry standard for many years. Practice has changed over the past several years to blood gas sample collection in plastic syringes, likely due to the cost, safety and convenience of plastic

Question: 132 Unit It Blood Collection Procedures Skills Drills SKILLS DRILL 7-1: REQUISITION ACTIVITY Identify The Tests Ordered On The Following Requisition. List The Tests Below In The Order Of Draw And Identify The Stopper Color And Additive Of The Tubes That Will Most Likely Be Collected For The Tests Indicated If the blood component is not needed for immediate transfusion, return the Red Blood Cells or plasma to the blood bank for proper disposal. Red Blood Cell and plasma components must be stored between 1 and 6 C and the temperature during transport cannot exceed 10 C. Refrigerated blood components will warm to above 10 C in approximately 30. 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg SQ or IM. The best results are obtained when administered 1015 minutes prior to blood - collection. Technique Example: Central Artery Place the rabbit in a rabbit restrainer. Using clippers, remove the hair from the ear. A 1 to 1-1/2-inch needle ranging in size from 22gauge to 20- gauge is recommended for blood collection

Allow the animal to remain at a deep anesthetic plane for ~10 more seconds before proceeding into the desired experimental procedures. Blood Collection from Orbital Sinus or Plexus of Mouse and Rat . Manually restrain and anesthetize the animal. Introduce the end of the microhematocrit tube at the medial canthus of the orbit A Vacutainer blood collection tube is a sterile glass or plastic test tube with a colored rubber stopper creating a vacuum seal inside of the tube, facilitating the drawing of a predetermined volume of liquid. Vacutainer tubes may contain additives designed to stabilize and preserve the specimen prior to analytical testing. Tubes are available with a safety-engineered stopper, with a variety. from other adults and children , considering the age, weight, and health of the subjects, the collection procedure, the amount of blood to be collected, and the frequency with which it will be collected. For these subjects, the amount drawn may not exceed the lesser of 50 ml or 3 ml per kg in an 8 week period and collection may not occur more. Detailed Collection Procedures for Clinical Microbiology Page 4 of 37 BLOOD CULTURES The procedure for obtaining blood cultures from a central line will be followed by RN's. The procedure for obtaining blood cultures from peripheral sites will be followed by RN's or PCT's. The same person should draw the complete set of blood cultures

This procedure also requires a tourniquet -- manufactured using a 3 cc syringe and a length of 0-2 non-absorbable suture, triple antibiotic ointment with a swab -- to be used as a moisture proof barrier between the skin and the blood droplet, a hair clipper, a 22 gauge needle for venipuncture, and hematocrit tube for blood collection The FLOW CYTOMETRY PATHOLOGY PROC (BLOOD ONLY) test is no longer offered by Geisinger Medical Laboratories. Here is a complete list of tests we perform. If you need additional assistance, please contact our Client Services Department at 800 695 6491 The use of low-volume collection tubes is also recommended to minimize the vacuum pressure that could otherwise cause vein collapse and minimize the volume of blood needed. For detailed information about performing pediatric phlebotomy procedures consult CLSI's GP41— Collection of Diagnostic Venous Blood Specimens Procedure. Decontaminate your hands and then clean the puncture site with the chloraprep wipe (in a cross-hatch formation) and allow to air dry. Decontaminate your hands; remove the caps from the blood culture bottles, then clean the top of the bottles with a new chloraprep wipe for 15 seconds and allow to air dry

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Blood collection chapter 4. Runs on the little finger side; is the least well anchored, and is the last choice of the three; located near the brachial artery; its position increases the rush of puncturing the artery if the needle is inserted too deeply. Signed by Bill Clinton on November 6, 2000, with an April 18, 2001, compliance date to your facility's established procedures. The site must be allowed to air dry in order to provide effective disinfection and to prevent possible hemolysis or erroneous results from residual alcohol. CAUTION: Handle all biologic samples and blood collection sharps (lancets, needles, luer adapters, and blood collection