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Adjusted Rand index vs Rand index

The Rand Index gives a value between 0 and 1, where 1 means the two clustering outcomes match identicaly. The Adjusted Rand Index rescales the index, taking into account that random chance will cause some objects to occupy the same clusters, so the Rand Index will never actually be zero Adjusted Rand Index vs Adjusted Mutual Information. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 5 months ago. Active 2 years, 9 months ago. Viewed 6k times 11 9 $\begingroup$ I am trying to evaluate clustering performance. I was reading the skiscit-learn documentation on metrics. I do not understand the difference between ARI and AMI

The value of the rand: A Big Mac Index approach - Quantec

I read the wikipedia article about Rand Index and Adjusted Rand Index. I can understand how they are calculated mathematically and can interpret Rand index as the ration of agreements over disagreements. But I am failing to have same intuition about ARI. This blogpost explains why ARI is better than RI by taking into account the chance of. Adjusted Rand Index(ARI) is one of the widely used metrics for validating clustering performance Rand Index(RI) and Adjusted Rand index(ARI) is different. ARI is easy to implement and needs ground truth to execute Let's Talk about ARI in details the five agreement indices: Rand index, Hubert and Arabie's adjusted Rand index, Morey and Agresti's adjusted Rand index, Fowlkes and Mallows's index, and Jaccard index, which measure the agreement between any two partitions for a data set. I guess the formula shown on Wikipedia must be the Hubert and Arabie's adjusted Rand index The adjusted Rand index is thus ensured to have a value close to 0.0 for random labeling independently of the number of clusters and samples and exactly 1.0 when the clusterings are identical (up to a permutation). ARI is a symmetric measure: adjusted_rand_score (a, b) == adjusted_rand_score (b, a

rand.index : Rand Index and Adjusted Rand Inde

Adjusted Rand Index Rand Index is a function that computes a similarity measure between two clustering. For this computation rand index considers all pairs of samples and counting pairs that are assigned in the similar or different clusters in the predicted and true clustering The Rand index or Rand measure (named after William M. Rand) in statistics, and in particular in data clustering, is a measure of the similarity between two data clusterings. A form of the Rand index may be defined that is adjusted for the chance grouping of elements, this is the adjusted Rand index This package provides the randindex function that implements several metrics: randindex(c1, c2) ¶. Compute the tuple of indices (Adjusted Rand index, Rand index, Mirkin's index, Hubert's index) between two assignments. Parameters: c1 - The assignment vector for the first clustering. c2 - The assignment vector for the second clustering The Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) is frequently used in clus- ter validation since it is a measure of agreement between two partitions: one given by the clustering process and the other defined by external criteria. In this paper we investigate the usability of this clustering val- idation measure in supervised classification problems by two.

The adjusted Rand Index (ARI) should be interpreted as follows: ARI >= 0.90 excellent recovery; 0.80 =< ARI < 0.90 good recovery; 0.65 =< ARI < 0.80 moderate recovery; ARI < 0.65 poor recovery. As the confidence interval is based on the approximation to the Normal distribution, it is recommended to trust in the confidence interval only in cases. Adjusted rand index (ARI) is a popular measure to compare two clusters. Unfortunately, I usually get negative ARI after performing clustering analysis and comparing them The Adjusted Rand Index is a measure of similarity between two data clustering solutions, adjusted for the change grouping of elements. The Calinski-Harabasz Index is an internal measure of homogeneity and cluster separation (i.e., how tight the clusters are vs. how separated each cluster group is from one another) specifies the prefered external index to meaure the agreement between the two partitions cl1 and cl2. Available indices are: Rand, HA (Hubert and Arabie's adjusted Rand index), MA (Morey and Agresti's adjusted Rand index), FM (Fowlkes and Mallows's index), Jaccard (Jaccard index). By default, all 5 indices will be. The Rand index is a way to compare the similarity of results between two different clustering methods.. Often denoted R, the Rand Index is calculated as:. R = (a+b) / (n C 2). where: a: The number of times a pair of elements belongs to the same cluster across two clustering methods. b: The number of times a pair of elements belong to difference clusters across two clustering methods

clustering - Adjusted Rand Index vs Adjusted Mutual

In this paper, Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) is generalized to two new measures based on matrix comparison: (i) Adjusted Rand Index between a similarity matrix and a cluster partition (ARImp), to evaluate the consistency of a set of clustering solutions with their corresponding consensus matrix in a cluster ensemble, and (ii) Adjusted Rand Index between similarity matrices (ARImm), to evaluate the. $./xmeasures -h xmeasures 4.0.4 Extrinsic measures evaluation: Omega Index (a fuzzy version of the Adjusted Rand Index, identical to the Fuzzy Rand Index) and [mean] F1-score (prob, harm and avg) for the overlapping multi-resolution clusterings, and standard NMI for the non-overlapping clustering on a single resolution CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The problem of clustering with constraints has received considerable attention in the last decade. Indeed, several algorithms have been proposed, but only a few studies have (partially) compared their performances. In this work, three well-known algorithms for k-means-based clustering with soft constraints.

For smaller sample sizes or larger number of clusters it is safer to use an adjusted index such as the Adjusted Rand Index (ARI). These metrics require the knowlege of the ground truth classes while almost never available in practice or requires manual assignment by human annotators (as in the supervised learning setting) - Rand index - Adjusted Rand - Jaccard. ECS 234 Clustering: Conclusions • K-means outperforms ALHC • SOM_r0 is almost K-means and PAM • Tradeoff between robustness and cluster quality: SOM_r1 vs SOM_r0, based on the topological neighborhood • Whan should we use which? Depends on what w The corrected Rand index provides a measure for assessing the similarity between two partitions, adjusted for chance. Its range is -1 (no agreement) to 1 (perfect agreement). Agreement between the specie types and the cluster solution is 0.62 using Rand index and 0.748 using Meila's VI

The Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) has been proposed by Hubert and Arabie as an enhancement of RI. We've suggested the ARI as the index of choice for assessing the correspondence among the two partitions in clustering analysis with variant counts of clusters. We can compute the ARI as below: (5) A R I = n 2 a + d-a + b a + c + (c + d) (b + d) n 2. ## adjusted RAND index requires iterables over the vertices: from sklearn. metrics import adjusted_rand_score as ARI tc = {val: idx for idx, part in enumerate (true_comm) for val in part} ## compute ARI print (Adjusted non-Graph-Aware Rand Index for Louvain:, ARI (list (tc. values ()), list (ml. values ()))) print (Adjusted non-Graph-Aware. # Are you surprised by the results? Compare to your expectations from the PC biplot of PC1 vs PC2. # What explains these results? # Adjusted rand index test for overlap between technology and cluster labelings. # This goes between 0 (completely dissimilar clustering) to 1 (identical clustering) Examples of examination of severity adjusted outcomes includes Solucient, Inc. identification of the 100 Top Hospitals in the United States. Criteria used for inclusion in this elite list includes risk adjusted mortality index, risk adjusted complications index and severity average length of stay

•Sharp drop of adjusted Rand index from the first 3 to first 4 PC's 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 number of components Adjusted Rand first no PCA greedy modified greed rand_adjusted. Rand index adjusted by chance (Hubert and Arabie 1985). The adopted model for randomness assumes that the two classifications are picked at random, given the original number of classes and objects - the contingency table is constructed from the hyper-geometric distribution. The general form of an index corrected for chance is

External Indexes, Adjusted Rand Index, Cluster Profiling using Radar Chart, Feature Scaling, DBSCAN Algorithm, Cluster Validation using DBCV, Hierarchical clustering, Average vs Complete vs Ward. South African Rand - data, forecasts, historical chart - was last updated on July of 2021. The South African Rand is expected to trade at 14.35 by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations. Looking forward, we estimate it to trade at 14.87 in 12 months time. 1Y Estimated number of clusters: 3 Homogeneity: 0.942 Completeness: 0.815 V-measure: 0.874 Adjusted Rand Index: 0.900 Adjusted Mutual Information: 0.815 Silhouette. 'rand': the RAND index 'jaccard': the Jaccard index 'mn': pairwise similarity normalized with the mean function 'gmn': pairwise similarity normalized with the geometric mean function 'min': pairwise similarity normalized with the minimum function 'max': pairwise similarity normalized with the maximum functio The 'real' value of the rand in January 2021. The Big Mac Index measures the real value of currencies using two methods - a direct measure of PPP using raw prices, and an adjusted index that.

machine learning - Why is Adjusted rand index(ARI) better

A high value for the adjusted Rand index indicated a close correspondence between perceptual categories and clustering within the neural color space. Only for the color-naming task, and only in V4v and VO1, were the adjusted Rand index values statistically greater than the baseline Rand index expected from a perfectly circular color space ( p. Rand releases updated study of hospital payment variation in commercial market. A new study published by the RAND Corporation finds that employers and private insurers across 49 states and District of Columbia pay, on average, 247% of what Medicare pays for hospital services. The report finds greater variance in the prices between hospitals.

Adjusted Rand index (Hubert and Arabie, 1985) compensates for random contribution to Rand index by subtracting the expected value of random clustering, such that in case of random clustering the adjusted Rand index converges to 0. The two latter measures are similarity indices commonly used to compare partitions (segmentation) of a data set Congress saw a total increase of $316.5 million in assets held by all members in the study. This page is about changes in net worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives during their time in office. The data goes from 2004 through 2012. This is the first part of the Personal Gain Index

What is Adjusted Rand Index and How it works! - Mk Hasan's

The Adjusted Rand index - Dave Tang's blo

  1. The inflation rate in South Africa between 1958 and 2021 was 9,704.63%, which translates into a total increase of R9,704.63. This means that 100 rand in 1958 are equivalent to 9,804.63 rand in 2021. In other words, the purchasing power of R100 in 1958 equals R9,804.63 in 2021. The average annual inflation rate between these periods was 7.55%
  2. Figure 4.5 Total time (seconds) vs. query interval q. The total time is for the entire dataset overall stream. For every q points, there is a query for the cluster centers. The Figure 5.14 Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) vs. number of points received from the stream. . . . .7
  3. Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).It is a main task of exploratory data analysis, and a common technique for statistical data analysis, used in many fields, including pattern recognition, image analysis.
  4. RAND provided, and the fourth column (labeled Alt. Weight) provides estimates where we adjusted the RAND sample weights to down weight the self-employed. Throughout the remainder of the paper we emphasize results using the adjusted weights. In some cases, we also report results weighted by the original RAND sample weights for comparison
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investment's returns correlate to an index. An R squared of 1.00 means the portfolio performance is 100% correlated to the index's, whereas a low r-squared means that the portfolio performance is less correlated to the index's. Sharpe ratio is a risk-adjusted measure calculated as the ratio o Table 2 Adjusted Rand Index for k-gaps clusters with 3 synthetic datasets with different numbers of time series (size), and an averaged missing data (per series) above 80%. Full size table. Fig. 9. Distribution of missing data for each one of the series included in datasets P191, P280, and P404. Days without temperature values are depicted in. The Rand has historically displayed a positive correlation with the local business confidence index as seen in the chart below. ZA Business Confidence Index vs USD/ZAR: Source: Refiniti To detect molecular dissimilarities among patients and reduce the complexity of high-dimension data, we have explored an endophenotype-identification analytical procedure that combines non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and adjusted rand index (ARI), a measure of the similarity of two clusterings of a data set Association of Exposure to Communities with Higher Ratios of Obesity with Increased Body Mass Index and Risk of Overweight and Obesity Among Parents and Children. Published in: JAMA Pediatrics [Epub January 2018]. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4882. Posted on RAND.org on January 25, 2018. by Ashlesha Datar, Nancy Nicosia. Related Topics

sklearn.metrics.adjusted_rand_score — scikit-learn 0.24.2 ..

  1. (adjusted_rand_score (mnist. target, kmeans_labels), adjusted_mutual_info_score (mnist. target, kmeans_labels)) ( 0.36675295135972552 , 0.49614118437750965 ) As might be expected, we have not done a particularly good job - both scores take values in the range 0 to 1, with 0 representing a bad (essentially random) clustering and 1 representing.
  2. After a strong 2021, the rand could be in for a tough time as U.S. taper talk and interest rates adjustments become more relevant. Could Q3 be the turning point for USD/ZAR
  3. Metric: adjusted rand score Mary Chin · Posted on September 8, 2019 October 24, 2019. scikit-learn, technical. Metric: mutual info Metric: Calinski-Harabasz index Mary Chin · Posted on September 9, 2019 October 24, 2019. Keras Sequential class vs functional AP
  4. A Big Mac costs 62% less in South Africa ($2.19) than in the US ($5.74) at market exchange rates. Based on differences in GDP per person, a Big Mac should cost 41% less. This suggests the rand is.
  5. Index Mar 1973=100, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted Jan 1973 to Dec 2019 (2020-01-06) South Korea / U.S. Foreign Exchange Rate South Korean Won to One U.S. Dollar, Monthly, Not Seasonally Adjusted Apr 1981 to Jun 2021 (Jul 6

machine learning - Comparing clusterings: Rand Index vs

Class Z Shares (% net of fees) vs. Index in EUR Performance of 100 EUR Invested Since Inception (Cash Value) 12 Month Performance Periods to Latest Month End (%) Investment Performance (% net of fees) in EUR Cumulative (%) Annualised (% p.a.) 1 M 3 M YTD 1 YR 3 YR 5 YR10 YR INCEPTION Class Z Shares 0.43 -0.13 -1.68 2.71 3.88 2.99 4.62 5.1 -EPS: -$0.21 in Q1 vs. -$0.13 in the same period last year. -Excluding items, Ingersoll-Rand PLC reported adjusted earnings of $191.8 million or $0.45 per share for the period Excluding items, Ingersoll-Rand PLC reported adjusted earnings of $226.3 million or $0.53 per share for the period. Analysts had expected the company to earn $0.45 per share, according to figures. The inflation rate in Australia between 1949 and 2021 was 2,984.21%, which translates into a total increase of $2,984.21. This means that 100 dolars in 1949 are equivalent to 3,084.21 dolars in 2021. In other words, the purchasing power of $100 in 1949 equals $3,084.21 in 2021. The average annual inflation rate between these periods was 4.88% Rand Capital Corporation (Nasdaq: RAND) (Rand), a business development company, today announced that it recently funded two new portfolio companies with a total investment of approximately $4.5.

clustering - ARI (Adjusted Rand Index) result meaning

Fast, Reliable, Affordable. Real time market data feeds and API for easy integration into your analysis applications. Compatible with all major 3rd party market data analysis software A psychometric investigation into the use of an adaptation of the Ghiselli Predictability Index in personnel selection. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 2005. Callie Theron. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper the Rand Index is highly dependent upon the number of clusters [2]. In [4], Fowlkes and Mallows show that in the (unrealistic) case of independant clusterings the Rand Index converges to 1 as the number of clusters increases which is undesirable for a similarity measure. 3.2.2 Adjusted Rand Index

Performance Metrics in ML - Part 3: Clustering Towards

  1. For all FC levels, specificity of the UQ normalization was greater than 0.84 and sensitivity greater than 0.90 except for the no change and +1.5 levels. Furthermore, K-means clustering of the simulated genes normalized by UQ agreed the most with the FC assignments [adjusted Rand index (ARI) = 0.67]
  2. There is a modified version of rand index called Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) which is proposed by Hubert and Arabie as an improvement for known problems with RI. These problems happen when the expected value of the RI of two random partition does not take a constant value (zero for example) or the Rand statistic approaches its upper limit of.
  3. Adjusted Rand Index, as demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations in (Fowlkes and Mallows, 1983), varies from 0.5 to 0.95. This variance in the met-ric's baseline prompts Meila to ask if the assumption of linearity following normalization can be main-tained. That is, if the behavior of the metric is s
  4. In the next subsection, the Rand index and the adjusted rand index are calculated based on these cardinalities. Calculation of pair-counting based metrics The Rand Index (RI), proposed by W. Rand is a measure of similarity between clusterings. One of its important properties is that it is not based on labels and thus can be used to evaluate.
  5. The Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) is displayed for each dataset pair for all combinations of (top to bottom: DC vs SC, NGS vs SC, DC vs NGS). The clusters obtained from SC and NGS are more similar than when comparing the DC dataset with the other two

How To Evaluate Unsupervised Learning Models by Callum

the SF-12 and the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), respectively [13, 14]. These shorter questionnaires were found to perform well relative to their progenitors, but it is not clear whether they can be used to generate a prefer­ ence-based index from the SF-6D. The VR-12 is a widely used health survey in population Possible values: 'vi' is the variation of information (VI) metric of Meila (2003), 'nmi' is the normalized mutual information measure proposed by Danon et al. (2005), 'split.join' is the split-join distance of can Dongen (2000), 'rand' is the Rand index of Rand (1971), 'adjusted.rand' is the adjusted Rand index by Hubert and. Adjusted Rand Index - Similarity of two assignments (submitted cluster labels vs. ground truth),which is invariant to permutations and normalised to chance. Homogeneity - Purity of ground truth labels within cluster. A rank per team is established for each measurement, separately. The mean rank of both metric ranks is then the team's. Correlations between k-means clusters and the six tissues depending on the RFs dataset were investigated with adjusted-Rand-index (ARI). Results: About 41 of 45 (91.1%) RFs were significantly influenced by the input image type (P values < 0.05), which was the most influential factor on repeatability of RFs (P-value < 0.05)

Scikit Learn - Clustering Performance Evaluation

  1. External index. Selection of existed methods. Pair-counting measures • Rand index (RI) [Rand, 1971] • Adjusted Rand index (ARI) [Hubert & Arabie, 1985] Information-theoretic measures • Mutual information (MI) [Vinh, Epps, Bailey, 2010] • Normalized Mutual information (NMI) [Kvalseth, 1987] Set-matching based measures • Normalized van.
  2. Selim AJ, Rogers W, Fleishman JA, et al. Updated U.S. population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12). Qual Life Res. 2009 Feb;18(1):43-52. Selim AJ, Rogers W, Qian SX, Brazier J, Kazis LE. A preference-based measure of health: the VR-6D derived from the veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey. Qual Life Res. 2011 Oct;20(8.
  3. Rand Index and Adjusted Rand Index calculations demonstrate a substantial relationship between track and CPS cluster membership. Storm-centered composites show that both track and CPS clustering yield substantial variations in structural evolution among clusters
  4. ate use of federal Office of Workers' Compensatio

Rand index - Wikipedi

  1. al effective exchange rate is showing that the Rand is undervalued by roughly 16%. There is a 88% correlation between the two methods used to estimate the over/undervaluation of the Rand against the dollar
  2. 4. PPPs and exchange rates. Transaction. Exchange rates, period-average Exchange rates, end of period Purchasing Power Parities for GDP Purchasing Power Parities for private consumption Purchasing Power Parities for actual individual consumption. Measure
  3. As a measure of confidence, the agreement of the cluster ensemble is calculated using the adjusted Rand index (Hubert and Arabie, 1985). Once all droplets are correctly assigned, the copies per droplet (CPDs) for each target are calculated by the function calculateCPDs. In order to compare individual wells (or files) with each other, a constant.
  4. Comparing the values between the ratio of the objective function and the adjusted rand index, it can be said that, despite that the agreement between the partitions decreases as the number of Rand Separation ARand vs Cluster Separation (10000e - 10c) 0.85 0.90 25 50 75 Size Rand Separatio
  5. Therefore, it is better to evaluate real performance, i.e., inflation-adjusted returns. The Historical Investment Returns Calculator has an option for an inflation-adjusted calculation. The calculator adjusts for inflation using the U.S. Consumer Price Index's year-over-year (December to December) rate of change
  6. ister Manual proved to be the most successful economic combination in South Africa's young history

Rand indices — Clustering 0

2.3.9.1. Adjusted Rand index¶ Given the knowledge of the ground truth class assignments labels_true and our clustering algorithm assignments of the same samples labels_pred, the adjusted Rand index is a function that measures the similarity of the two assignments, ignoring permutations and with chance normalization S&P 500 Intrinsic Value Index Update. Household Survey Employment is reported higher by 275,000 and Light Weight Vehicle Sales SAAR (Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate) rises to an est ~16mil. Both of these economic indicators thus far reflect a V shaped economic recovery since April lows 2016. Rand KY Low, Robert Faff, and Kjersti Aas.Enhancing mean-variance portfolio selection by modeling distributional asymmetries. Journal of Economics and Business, 85:49-72, 2016. [Abstract ] [ South Africa's rand and local stocks dropped on Monday, as concerns about the rapid global spread of the Delta coronavirus variant drove investors to seek comfort in the U.S. dollar and precious.

(PDF) On the Use of the Adjusted Rand Index as a Metric

Step 2. To calculate the real GDP in 1960, use the formula: RealGDP N ominal GDP P rice Index/100 $543.3 billion 19/100 $2,859.5 billion R e a l G D P N o m i n a l G D P P r i c e I n d e x / 100 $ 543.3 b i l l i o n 19 / 100 $ 2, 859.5 b i l l i o n. We'll do this in two parts to make it clear Figure 3: Trade weighted rand movements vs CPI inflation (both % change y/y) Conversely, fuel, electricity and other administered price increases continue to remain upside risks to the inflation trajectory. Indeed, oil prices have climbed markedly this year and are expected to remain elevated over the SARB's forecast horizon The South African rand, for instance, However, the adjusted index shows it to actually be overvalued against the US dollar by 13.8%. The Five Cheapest Countries. On the other hand, here are the five countries with the cheapest Big Macs in the world, and you might be surprised at who made the list

ari: Computes the adjusted Rand index and the confidence

Evicting tenants was allowed under lockdown Level 1, but now that South Africa has moved back to adjusted Level 3 regulations amid a second wave of coronavirus infections, the question is what landlords can and can't do. Although the Level 3 regulations have been adjusted, certain core conditions remain, explains attorney Simon Dippenaar South African stocks rose Thursday, gaining 0.6% as of 10:55 a.m. in Johannesburg and heading for a fresh all-time record close, as miners recovered amid optimism over a global recovery and as a. The impact inflation has on the time value of money is that it decreases the value of a dollar over time. The time value of money is a concept that describes how the money available to you today. The argument in favor of low-cost index funds is simple: Active funds cost more and are less likely to live up to their promises. According to S&P Dow Jones Indices Risk-Adjusted SPIVA Scorecard: Year-End 2020, after adjusting for volatility, the majority of actively managed domestic funds across market-cap segments underperformed their benchmarks on a net-of-fees basis over mid- and long-term.

Inflation: Don&#39;t ignore this silent retirement killerEpidemiology of Crime: National Crime Victimization SurveyPPT - Integrating Topics and Syntax - Thomas L

The Russell Midcap Growth® Index was the worst performing domestic index in the quarter, posting its first quarterly decline since the first quarter of 2020. Despite the modest decline, the more than 68% return of the Index over the trailing year ranks as the largest one-year gain in twenty years as markets bounced off the COVID-19 bottom An emerging-market strategist has ranked 10 emerging market currencies, highlighting that the South Korean won and Malaysian ringgit are likely to be winners. The rand is in the middle of the pack. The carry-trade involves borrowing in a low- interest rate currency and converting this into another currency, says Investopedia SPIVA. India Year-End 2020. S&P Dow Jones Indices has been the de facto scorekeeper of the ongoing active versus passive debate since the first publication of the S&P Indices Versus Active Funds (SPIVA) U.S. Scorecard in 2002. Over the years, we have built on our experience publishing the report by expanding scorecard coverage into Australia. The MVIS Africa Index ETF is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by MV Index Solutions GmbH and MV Index Solutions GmbH makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the Fund. The S&P 500 Index is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and/or its affiliates and has been licensed for use by Van Eck Associates Corporation The Fund is fundamentals- and valuation-based and is managed in a way that is benchmark aware, but is not tied to the index. The Fund's focus on capturing value in all aspects of the local currency universe - whether via an unhedged rates position, a pure currency position, or an FX hedged rates position - allows investors to capture high.