Polydactyly in animals

Symptoms of Polydactyly in Dogs Most breeds of dogs have four main toes and one dew claw on the front limbs, with four toes on the back If your dog has more than the normal number they are considered polydactyly (poly meaning many, and dactyl meaning digits Polydactyly or polydactylism (from Greek πολύς (polys) 'many', and δάκτυλος (daktylos) 'finger'), also known as hyperdactyly, is an anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes. Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly (fewer fingers or toes) Polydactyly is a well studied congenital deformities observed in newborns that may involves the presence of more than the usual number of digits mainly in the upper extremities. In animals, this condition is recorded in several species such cats, dogs, guinea pigs, fowl, tortoises and birds [1-3]. It is importan We report the first two cases of polydactyly in an atelid species: (i) a wild ca. 16-week-old infant female presenting seven digits in both feet and other bone malformations and (ii) a wild newborn male presenting six digits in both feet with the extra digit fused to the hallux When people or animals are born with extra fingers this typically dominant trait is called polydactyly. The same is true for the much more rare ectrodactyly, when people are born missing digits. The exception is when extra or fewer fingers and toes are one part or a larger syndrome. Then polydactyly and ectrodactyly are recessive traits

Polydactyly in Dogs - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis

Polydactyly is the appearance of one or several supernumerary digits in the limbs of vertebrates. It is generally understood as a surplus to the regular digit number in the wildtype of a given species Nontreated Pdn/Pdn fetuses exhibited preaxial polydactyly of the duplicated or triplicated metacarpal/metatarsal type both in the fore- and hindlimbs. In the treated Pdn/Pdn fetuses, the number of preaxial extra digits decreased in both limbs. Some hindlimbs of the treated Pdn/Pdn fetuses exhibited five metatarsals, normally Polydactyly in cats is a condition in which a feline possess more toes than the average cat. Felines are born with fives toes on each front paw and four toes on each back paw, but polydactyl cats have several. The increased number of toes is an inherited, genetic mutation that is not uncommon Polydactyly is seen in other species. There are several forms of polydactyly in laboratory mice;these are used to study how limbs develop. Some cause simple duplication or bifurcation of thumbs while others cause multiple abnormalities by disrupting how the embryo develops

Polydactyly - Wikipedi

  1. Polydactyly is an abnormal condition in which cattle are born with one or more extra digits on one or more limbs. Polydactyly has been reported in several animal species. The condition occurs rarely in cattle but individual spontaneous cases (not produced by a known polydactylous parent) have been reported on sporadically for over a century [
  2. ant trait with variable expressivity
  3. Syndactyly and polydactyly are the most common types of congenital hand deformities. Syndactyly is webbing or fusing between the digits (fingers or toes). The digits can be partially fused or fused along their entire length. The severity can range from simple fusion with digits connected only by skin to more complicated fusion with shared.

GLI3 mutations are known to be associated with nine syndromes/conditions in which polydactyly is a feature. In this review, the embryology, pathogenesis, and animal models of GLI3-related polydactyly are discussed first. This is followed by a detailed review of the genotype-phenotype correlations polydactyly has been reported in many breeding and wild-living species, as well as in primates including humans (5-8). In this paper, we report for the fi rst time the occurrence of polydactyly in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). Our results may provide a new insight into the occurrence of polydactyly in animal species an

IntroductionPolydactyly is a condition where extra digits are formed in limb extremities of an animal. It is a rare condition in the ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat). Polydactyly is associated with musculoskeletal and several genetic syndromes (Farrell et al., 1996) For some strange reason, both polydactyly and syndactyly have been observed in cats. The greatest number of toes reportedly found on a cat was 32 back in 1974! The male cat, 'Mickey Mouse', was owned by a Mrs Renee Delgade of Westlake Village, California A polydactyl cat is a cat with a congenital physical anomaly called polydactyly (or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly), which causes the cat to be born with more than the usual number of toes on one or more of its paws

Two cases of polydactyly in wild brown howler monkeys

Polydactyly is a hereditary anomaly that is relatively common in both humans and animals. Moles also have additional fingers. In their case, however, the irregularity compared to the five-finger. Proteins in the GLI family function in the same molecular pathway as a protein called Sonic Hedgehog. This pathway is essential for early development. It plays a role in cell growth, cell specialization, and the patterning of structures such as the brain and limbs

Polydactyly in other animals is known, notably in man, cat, guinea pig, and fowl but will be discussed only briefly in this paper. The polydactyly described by HOLT, FORTUYN, CHASE, and presumably MURRAY varies in expression as follows : slight thickening of the hallux, con-. When Polydactyly in dogs and cats is an extra toe, it can cut off. The best prevention Polydactyly is to not breeding animals that have problems. Alarcón, C.A.R., D.M.B. Ruiz, M.F. Itzá and R.R. Barreno. 2014. Syndactyly and concurrent multiple pad agenesis in all four limbs with secondary deep digital flexor contracture in a puppy Polydactyly and Syndactyly. Polydactylism (polydactyly) is a common congenital defect in llamas and alpacas 51; one to three accessory digits may occur on one or all four limbs. Fusion of two normal digits (syndactyly) is less common. Both conditions have been identified as inherited traits in cattle, dogs, and humans The University of California San Francisco Limb Study is researching the genetic causes of limb malformations. They are looking for participants who only have problems with their limbs, such as fused or webbed fingers/toes, more than 5 fingers/toes, less than 5 fingers/toes, split hand and foot also called ectrodactyly, short fingers/toes, bent pinky fingers, extra long fingers, flexed fingers. Polydactyly is an example of a novel class of genetic mutations caused by ectopic expression of a signalling molecule in the developing limb bud. Mutations in the long-distant, limb-specific cis-regulator for the signalling molecule are responsible for the ectopic expression which underlies the abnormality

Problems that can arise with polydactyly in cats | Pets4Homes

Similar to polymelia, polydactyly is more frequently observed in farm animals such as livestock farming. Polydactyly may occur due to similar reasons causing polymelia.12 Polydactyly was reported so far on Vaux's Swift Chaetura vauxi,13 screech owls Otis asio and pigeons,14 as well. We report polymelia and polydactyly in an immatur The independent assortment of dominant white and polydactyly in the cat. J Hered 57:17-18, 1966. Pubmed reference: 5917255. 1964: Todd, N.B., Jones, T.C. : On independent assortmant of dominant white and polydactyly in the cat Journal of Cat Genetics 1:16-17, 1964. 196 Polydactyly isn't something that is just unique to humans. It is a common trait in several heritage chicken breeds, including Silkies, and a number of mutations of the LMBR1 gene, in dogs, humans, and mice, can cause Polydactyly. an alignment of the finger and a new placement of tendons can help people or animals go on to live a regular.

Understanding Genetic

polydactyly ( extra fingers ) is dominant over the normal five-fingered condition , we would pick P for the dominant gene, and small p for the recessive normal allele. 4. Determine, if possible, the genotypes of the parents. In 9 out of 10 problems this information is given, or at least implied Polydactyly does occur in other animals too, including dogs, chickens, mice and cats, usually as a result of mutations to the LMBR1 gene. This gene encodes for a protein that is involved in the development of limbs and as a result mutations (which are changes to the sequence of bases in the DNA) can alter how limbs develop, and therefore cause. Polydactyly (from the Greek: poly = many, daktulos = fingers) is a common trait among cats. It is a naturally occurring genetic variation that occurs in many animals as well as in humans. Although the trait had been observed earlier, the first official scientific recording of polydactyly was in 1868 limb (Gugolek et al., 2011). Polydactyly is an autosomal dominant trait in both animals and humans (Kozin, 2003; Gugolek et al., 2011). It has been suggested that shh and msx-1 genes are involved in the development of polydacty-ly along with retinoic acid (Towle et al., 2004). In humans, polydactyly is divided into a typ-ical variety

Polydactyly is a condition in which an extra finger or toe is present on the hand or foot. It is the second most common hand anomaly and is present from birth (congenital). Polydactyly usually affects only one hand or foot rather than both. There are three types of polydactyly that are distinguished based on the location of the extra finger or toe Polydactyly is an inherited disorder in many species that may be controlled by either recessive or dominant genes. Experimental matings were conducted using pigs that had produced affected offspring with the result of 12 polydactyl offspring out of 95 piglets

Abstract Pdn/Pdn fetuses show preaxial Polydactyly of duplicated or triplicated metacarpal/metatarsal type in the fore‐ and hindlimbs.Pdn/+ fetuses show one extra digit of distal phalangeal type preaxially in the hindlimb and deformity of distal phalanx of the 1st digit in the forelimb.Normal patterns of physiological cell death in the preaxial apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the deep. Penetrance refers to the probability of a gene or trait being expressed. In some cases, despite the presence of a dominant allele, a phenotype may not be present. One example of this is polydactyly in humans (extra fingers and/or toes). A dominant allele produces polydactyly in humans but not all humans with the allele display the extra digits Polydactyly is a congenital genetic disorder that causes the affected individual to exhibit additional digits on the hands and/or feet. These digits may just be a mass of tissue or a fully functional digit. HealthHearty explores and discusses the true genetic basis for the emergence of this particular condition The defect is also seen in cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, geese, and sometimes horses. Several news organisations in India and overseas on Monday reported the story of a 63-year-old woman in a village in Odisha who, according to the reports, had been ostracised by the community as a witch because she was born with 12 fingers and 20 toes

Cat Facts: Why Do So Many Cats Have Extra Toes? - CatTime

Special Considerations for Extra Toes. Your normal cat has 5 toes in front and 4 in back, a total of 18. Most polydactyl cats have the mutation only in the front, with an average of 2-3 additional toes, but cats have been reported to have up to 28 toes. These kitties tend to have a high cute factor because they look like they have. Regardless, polydactyly is a common feline condition. Learn more about cats with extra toes. while others say these extra-toed animals were brought over by English Puritans in the 1600s. If. Polydactyly is a condition where a person is born with extra fingers or toes on one or both of their hands and feet. The way polydactyly presents can vary. It may appear as a: small, raised lump. Polydactyly, also known as hyperdactyly or hexadactyly is the most common hereditary limb anomaly characterized by extra fingers or toes, with various associated morphologic phenotypes as part of a syndrome (syndromic polydactyly) or may occur as a separate event (non-syndromic polydactyly). Broadly, the non-syndromic polydactyly has been classified into three types, i.e.; preaxial polydactyly. Can Other Animals Be Polydactyl? Yes, they can. Sorry cats, you are not the only ones who can have polydactyly. Dogs, moles, mice, and even humans can have the condition. Most of the time, the extra digit(s) has no joint, is made up of soft tissue and bone, and is completely non-functional

Polydactyly is an inherited trait, meaning cats are likely to get it if one of their parents has extra toes. Hemingway cats are found all over the country, but they are especially common along the east coast in North America and Canada Polydactyly is a condition in which a person is born with extra fingers or toes. The term comes from the Greek words for many (poly) and digits (dactylos) Here are five fascinating facts about six- (or-more)-toed cats. 1. Polydactyly is a genetic abnormality. Owen, a polydactyl cat. Photography courtesy Annie Butler Shirreffs. Count your kitty's. Some people with polydactyly have mutations in GLI3 that cause it either to not work at all or that cause it to work only very weakly. So basically, the embryo ends up with too much SHh and dHAND, causing the extra fingers and toes. This kind of polydactyly can be inherited from your parents. It is an autosomal dominant trait

Although polydactyly, a genetic abnormality that results in extra digits, is more common in certain geographic regions of the world, it can affect any breed of cat, male or female, big or small. Read on to learn more about the genetic factors that contribute to polydactyly and to check out some adorable photos of polydactyl cats 329 Words2 Pages. In the first 8 weeks after being conceived, many things need to happen in your development. Genetic mutations can cause many different things to happen. For example, polydactyly causes people to have extra toes/fingers. Also, external dysplasia affects the skin, teeth, nails, and hair. Even nutrition could affect your genes A unique prehistoric Pueblo culture thrived in the high desert of Chaco Canyon about a thousand years ago. Scientists have known about polydactyly among these people for years, based on images and. The Beijing You chicken is a Chinese native breed with superior meat quality and a unique appearance. The G/T mutation of SNP rs80659072 in the Shh long-range regulator of GGA2 is highly associated with the polydactyly phenotype in some chicken breeds. In the present study, this SNP was genotyped using the TaqMan detection method, and its association with the number of toes was analyzed in a. Experimental evidence that preaxial polydactyly and forearm radial deficiencies may share a common developmental origin. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2018;1753193418762959 Experimentally induced preaxial polydactyly in animal models highlighting key aberrations during embryogenesis and molecular pathways that lead to its development. 10

Video: Polydactyly in Development, Inheritance, and Evolution

Embryology of normal web space creation and the genetics of syndactyly in humans and experimental animals are well described in the literature. In this review, the author offers a 3-step pathway of pathogenesis for syndactyly. The first step is initiated either by the overactivation of the WNT canonical pathway or the suppression of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) canonical pathway animals is maintained there. One area of current research involves the pattern of syn- dactyly in beef cattle vs. dairy cattle. Although it's more frequent in some dairy breeds, studies indicate that it's more severe in beef cattle. Dairy animals usually have one foot affected, sometimes two or three, but rarely four. On the other hand Point mutations in a distant sonic Homozygous feature of isolated triphalangeal thumb-preaxial polydactyly linked hedgehog cis-regulator generate a variable regulatory output responsible for preax- to 7q36: no phenotypic difference between homozygotes and heterozygotes. Clin ial polydactyly. Hum Mol Genet 17:978-985 Polydactyl cats have more than the usual number of toes on one or more of their paws. These kitties are born with an abnormal, dominant genetic mutation called polydactylism. While the polydactyl cat's appearance is quite unique, the polydactyl gene is somewhat common. Normally kittens are born with five toes on their front paws and four in.

Prevention of polydactyly manifestation in Polydactyly

Animal models involving mutations in ZRS, the Shh gene, the Gli3 gene and the Pitx1 gene were reported to be related to polydactyly. Animal models carrying human mutations may help to reveal the regulatory interactions of normal and pathologic development, homeostatic maintenance and repair, and thus to prevent and treat intervention (Ref. 'The incidence of polydactyly (supernumerary digits of hands or feet) is the same in both sexes, with simultaneous polydactyly of the hands and feet present in about one third of cases.' 'True polydactyly more commonly occurs on the feet and may be present with malformation syndromes. Polydactyly is more common in cats than other animals, perhaps because the location of the genes on the chromosomes make them more likely to mutate. The most dominant form of polydactyly is harmless, although there is a less common form that indicates other genetic physiological problems with the cat Polydactyly is a congenital condition affecting about 1 in 500 live births. In the United States, there is a higher incidence of polydactyly in the Amish community than in the general population. Polydactyls have six or more digits on their hands or feet; these supernumery digits sometimes consists of a small flap of soft tissue, and is. Polydactyly in HDAC9/ HDRP knockout mice occurs with incomplete penetrance and affects both genders similarly. Because polydactyly can result from overactivity of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, we investigated whether HDRP acted as a negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We find that Gli1, a transcription factor and downstream mediator of Shh.

The author loved the animals and took in so many strays that at one point his house in Cuba, Finca Vigia (Lookout Farm), had 57 cats. Polydactyly is well known in mice and in humans, as well. Known as polydactyly, having more than 10 fingers or toes is the most common birth defect in humans. This work highlights the importance of animal models in research and will help scientists examine whether the mechanism that causes polydactyly in these mice also occurs in people, Yao said Polydactyly in cats is common only on the front paws and affects all breeds, colors, and shapes of our feline friends. Called mitten cats by the sailors, they were preferred due to the perception of being better mousers as well as having better balance during rough seas polydactyly - polydactyly stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Jerome Moerman of Olsene in Belgium who has twelve fingers and twelve toes circa 1965 The condition is known as polydactyly. A woman with polydactyly extra fingers. Africa hand with two thumbs called Polydactyly undated probably around 1910 Photographer Haeckel Define polydactyl. polydactyl synonyms, polydactyl pronunciation, polydactyl translation, English dictionary definition of polydactyl. polydactyl Biology adj. also pol·y·dac·ty·lous Having more than the normal number of digits. n. A person or animal having more than the normal number of..

Polydactyly in Cats - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis

OMIA 000810 : Polydactyly Possible human homologue (MIM number): 174500 (trait) Cross-species summary: Often called preaxial polydactyly (PPD) Species in which this phene is found: rock pigeon (Columba livia Polydactyly chondrocytes have a steady proliferative rate and re-differentiate in 3D pellet culture after up to five passages. After being proven safe in a range of pre-clinical animal models. Indiana Hemingway Polydactyl Rescue. 788 Adopted! Find home for an animal Alerts Get Alerts. Filter. Show All. Female. Male. Urgent. Change Location If you're not familiar, polydactyly is a very groovy mutation, usually leaving cats with a few extra digits. In rare, extreme cases, they can be born with a smorgasbord of spare toes: the Guinness World Record holders are a pair of felines with 28 a piece. It's not dangerous, and doesn't tend to cause the animals any grief. There's a related. Polydactyly. Polydactyly is a condition in which a person has more than 5 fingers per hand or 5 toes per foot. Extra digits may be present as an isolated finding, or they may occur as part of a syndrome, in which case other abnormalities are usually present

FREIBURG, Germany — People who are born with more than five fingers or toes, a condition known as polydactyly, may often feel embarrassed or ashamed by what the medical community considers a limb malformation.But a new study shows that individuals with six fingers are actually at an advantage in many ways when it comes to fine motor skills and capabilities, with the ability to perform. Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is an anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes. Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly. Also see Polydactyly on Wikipedia Inbreeding of S contributed to inbreeding of X. If S was non-inbred, F X would have been .25. Uses of Inbreeding Inbreeding can have benefits to a seed stock producer if the breeder understands how to monitor it and is willing to sacrifice some performance in the process Removing an extra little finger (ulnar polydactyly) can be fairly simple if the extra finger is attached by a narrow stalk or nub of soft tissue. The extra finger can be removed with a minor procedure or even by tying off (ligating) the nub in the nursery. Removing an extra thumb (radial polydactyly, thumb duplication) can be. Polydactyly comes from a dominant gene and the word itself means many fingers. It's also known as hyperdactyly and can be seen in humans as well as various animals, including dogs, cats, pigs, sheep, guinea pigs, mice, cows, reptiles, amphibians, and even horses

10 Genetic Anomalies That Are Simply BizarreHemingway, Polydactyl, or just the Six-Toed Cat? | Z-CarPolydactyl cat - Wikipedia

Polydactyly In Humans and Other Specie

Polydactyly occurs in many species of animal including humans, dogs, cattle, sheep, horses. What is the normal number of toes on a cat? Eighteen toes are the normal number for cats. Five on each front paw, four on each rear paw. Polydactyly is relatively common in many domestic cats, and indeed some large species of cats Polydactyly, a condition in which a person or animal has more than five fingers or toes on one, or on each, hand or foot has been encountered world-wide, both in ancient as well as modern times. A mold of the six-toed footprint found in the plaster wall. photo: Patricia L. Crown Polydactyly -- extra fingers or sometimes toes -- is one symptom of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. The syndrome is commonly found among the Old Order Amish of Pennsylvania, a population that.

Cuy (guinea pigs, Cavia porcellus) eat greens, in Peru

Spontaneous Appearance and Transmission of Polydactyly in

Preaxial polydactyly (PPD, OMIM 603596), extra digits occurring on the preaxial side of the hands, is the most common congenital hand malformation, with the prevalence ranging from 5 to 19 per. ANIMALS HAVE IT TOO. Above: a ferret (left) and a cat (right) Cow (above) Horse (above), dog (below) What is Polydactyly? Polydactyly is a condition in which a person has more than five fingers per hand or five toes per foot. Having an abnormal number of digits (6 or more) can occur on its own, without any other symptoms or disease Polydactyly is a well studied congenital deformities observed in newborns that may involves the presence of more than the usual number of digits mainly in the upper extremities. In animals, this condition is recorded in several species such cats, dogs, guinea pigs, fowl, tortoises and birds [1-3]. It is important to note that each species has. The condition in which people possess an extra finger or toe, i.e., a supernumerary digit, is called Polydactyly.. This digit may look like a small skin (nubbin), a raised bump, or sometimes a.

Congenital and Inherited Anomalies of the Musculoskeletal

also known in other classes of higher vertebrate animals. From classical poultry genetics (Crawford 1990), it is well known that polydactyly is due to the autosomal gene Po, and the basic mode of its inheritance is incomplete dominance. On the other hand, polydactyly is a complex trait in fl uenced by modi fi er and suppressor genes Having an extra finger or toe is called polydactyly (pahl-ee-DAK-til-ee). The extra digit may range from a small, raised bump to a complete, working finger or toe. Most of the time, it's smaller than the other digits and not well formed. Sometimes the extra digit is only skin (a nubbin), and it connects to the hand or foot with only a narrow. carol : 3/1/1999. # 603596. POLYDACTYLY. SNOMEDCT: 367506006; ICD10CM: Q69.9, Q69; ICD9CM: 755.0, 755.00; ORPHA: 2913; DO: 1148; TEXT. A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of the large number of genetically distinct disorders in which polydactyly is an isolated anomaly or occurs in association with other anomalies Polydactyly in early tetrapod: lt;p|>|Polydactyly in early tetrapod| should here be understood as having more than five digits t... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled

Syndactyly and Polydactyly - Birth Defect Fact Shee

Polydactyl cats, also known as Hemingway cats, got their name from the Greek origin word, polydactyly which means many or extra toes. Unlike humans, dogs or any other species, where this trait does not occur that often, among felines is pretty standard and affects the cats predominantly from the US, Wales, and England. An average cat usually has 18 toes, [ ico_pinterest. There are many different conditions that can cause animals to be born with extra legs (a condition also called polymelia, pygomelia, or supernumerary limbs). Some examples are described below. The main causes of extra limbs is the partial development of a conjoined twin, or a genetic mutation (spontaneous or inherited) that. Since polydactyly is a genetic mutation, it can occur in any breed of cat and isn't considered a breed type itself. If a kitten is born with even one extra toe it is considered a polydactyl, but it isn't uncommon for polydactyl kitties to have 22 toes or more. The condition typically affects a kitten's toes and therefore her toe joints As you might have guessed, polydactyly is a condition where an animal has extra fingers or toes. The extra digit may be fleshy, contain bones, or even be fully functioning. The postaxial manifestation (on the side of the little finger) is most common, followed by preaxial (by the thumb) and then central (the middle three fingers) Assume that polydactyly (the presence M undial polydactyly the presence of extra digits) in humans is an autosomal dominant trait that exhibits 4% penetrance. A Cuban-born professional baseball player, W on his throwing hand, marries an American woman whose father was a distinguisme 1-born professional baseball player, who has six fingers.

GLI3-related polydactyly: a revie

We've seen polydactyly and osteopetrosis individually in humans and other animals which made us wonder what led to BUB having a combination of the two. Just the other week, we found a mutation that probably causes her polydactyly. And even more amazingly, it turns out that she's distantly related to the cats of Ernest Hemingway Shh and Gli3 constrain the potential all tetrapods, or four-legged animals, have to produce more than five digits, a condition called polydactyly, says Fallon. Digit number is probably constrained because the syndromes that accompany mutations causing polydactyly are not compatible with overall fitness of an animal Backcrossing these animals (C3H×C57) with 129P2 mice resulted in an extra postaxial digit in heterozygous offspring at a low frequency (data not shown). These observations support the strong influence of the genetic background on the appearance of a postaxial polydactyly in different Gli3 mouse mutants and the implication of genetic modifiers Polydactyly of the Feet - Causes, Types, and Surgery Info. Polydactyly of the feet is a rare, congenital condition ( congenital meaning, present from birth) in which an individual may have more than five toes on one or both feet. The term polydactyly is also used to describe the condition of having extra fingers on one or both hands. The most common type of malformation caused by these mutations is called preaxial polydactyly, i.e. the formation of extra digits near the thumb or big toe. For example, mutations in the ZRS enhancer have been observed in polydactyl Hemingway cats, so-named for the American author and ailurophile Ernest Hemingway, who kept a large colony.

Diseases of Llamas and Alpacas - Exotic and Laboratory

P. J. Darlington The Origin of the Fauna of the Greater Antilles, with Discussion of Dispersal of Animals Over Water and Through the Air, The Quarterly Review of Biology 13, no. 3 (Sep., 1938): 274-300 Preaxial polydactyly. Polydactyly or polydactylism (from Greek πολύς (polys) 'many', and δάκτυλος (daktylos) 'finger'), also known as hyperdactyly, is an anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes. Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly (fewer fingers or toes). [Source: Wikipedia Digby (1645) reported preaxial polydactyly, presumably of this type, in females in 5 generations. Pott (1884) observed 10 affected (6 females and 4 males) in 3 generations. Sinha (1918) found irregular segregation in a family with affected persons in 3 generations. In 1 generation, only 1 of 13 persons at risk were affected. Sobbota and De Marinis (1957) observed a girl with bilateral thumb.