Lipids structure

What Are Lipids? - Definition, Structure & Classification

Structure and properties of two representative lipids. Both stearic acid (a fatty acid) and phosphatidylcholine (a phospholipid) are composed of chemical groups that form polar heads and nonpolar tails. The polar heads are hydrophilic, or soluble in water, whereas the nonpolar tails are hydrophobic, or insoluble in water Lipids are structural components of the cellular membrane. They provide energy in the body. They are stored in adipose tissues - the major source of energy. In humans, lipids are the best source of energy and provide most parts of calories For lipids that are very hydrophobic, such as fats/ oils, movement and storage in the aqueous environment of the body requires special structures. Other, amphipathic lipids, such as glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids spontaneously organize themselves into lipid bilayers when placed in water

VI. Lipids, Structure - A Guide to the Principles of ..

The functional roles of non-bilayer lipid structures in membranes have been investigated by characterizing the influence or divalent cations, ionic strength, pH, and membrane protein on lipid polymorphism. These factors can strongly influence the structural preferences of appropriate lipid systems Lipids have a wide variety of structures but all include a hydrocarbon chain which is almost always in the form of a fatty acid. Fats are lipids made by bonding fatty acids with an alcohol - the most common fat is triacylglycerol which contains three fatty acids bonded to a 3 carbon alcohol called glycerol Lipids display remarkable structural diversity, driven by factors such as variable chain length, a multitude of oxidative, reductive, substitutional and ring-forming biochemical transformations as well as modification with sugar residues and other functional groups of different biosynthetic origin

Lipid Structure. Lipid molecule structure depends on the type of lipid, yet all contain the basic component of the fatty acid. A fatty acid is a straight chain of four to twenty-four carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms running along the carbon chain and a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end. The presence of the carboxyl group provides the acid. They comprise a wide variety of different structures of which the majority contain fatty acid esters, though in a few cases, the fatty acids are present in ether linkages or as amide derivatives. The lipids are mainly present as triacylglycerols in seeds or in the fleshy part of fruits where they act as food stores This bilayer membrane structure is also found in aggregate structures called liposomes. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles consisting of an aqueous core enclosed in one or more phospholipid layers. They are formed when phospholipids are vigorously mixed with water. Unlike micelles, liposomes have both aqueous interiors and exteriors Cells are surrounded by a structure called the plasma membrane, which serves as a barrier between the inside of the cell and its surroundings. Specialized lipids called phospholipids are major components of the plasma membrane. Like fats, they are typically composed of fatty acid chains attached to a backbone of glycerol

Lipid Types and Structures - Nutrition: Science and

Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical.. Lipid structure Lipids are a group of biological molecules that intervene in relevant processes in the body. In particular, they are part of the cell membrane, are the basis for the production of hormones and, above all, are responsible for storing energy

Lipids: Structure, Function and Example

  1. Lipids are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, similar to carbohydrates, but contain less water. In fact, lipids are insoluble in water. Fats are an example of a type of lipid. Lipids play a variety of important functions in the cells
  2. Lipids Lipids • Lipids are biological molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. -Lipids have a wider spectrum of compositions and structures because they are defined in terms of their physical properties (water solubility). • Lipids are the waxy, greasy, or oily compounds found in plants and animals
  3. In this video we cover the molecular structure of lipids or fats. We discuss the structure of triglyceride molecules, the structure of phospholipid molecules..

Description. The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume 4: Lipids: Structure and Function provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of plant lipid biochemistry. This book covers a variety of topics, including oxidative enzymes, glyoxylate cycle, lipoxygenases, ethylene biosynthesis, phospholipids, and carotenoids Lipid Structure Although there is no single common structure for lipids, the most commonly occurring class of lipids are triglycerides, which are fats and oils. Trigylcerides have a glycerol backbone bonded to three fatty acids. If the three fatty acids are identical then the triglyceride is termed a simple triglyceride The structure of some of these lipids are represented in figure 5-3. Mention may also be made of diphosphatidyl-glycerol or cardiolipid, a phos­phatide which is specifically located in the mitochondria in mammals. It is formed by the union of 2 molecules of phosphatidic acid the phosphate atoms of which are linked through a molecule of glycerol The diversity of lipids is reflected in the variety of natural structures. Unlike other biological molecules that are comprised of relatively few components, lipids are complex Lipids are molecules that contain hydrocarbons and make up the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. Examples of lipids include fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins (such.

Not only do lipids serve as highly reduced storage forms of energy, but they also play an intimate role in the structure of cell membrane and organellar membranes. Lipids are not transported in the free form in circulating blood plasma, but move as chylo­microns Lipids are insoluble organic compounds that consist of fat and oil. The chemical composition of these molecules includes hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. They provide high energy and perform three important biological functions in the body: to provide structure to cell membranes, to store energy, and to function as signaling molecules

Molecular Structure of Lipids (With Diagram

  1. 1: Lipid Structure. E. MP0 - C. The Cell: Carbohydrates. D. The System, Surroundings, and the Universe - Laws of Thermodynamics. Lipids are not just used as a passive component of membranes, or as a source of stored energy. They are involved in the process of signal transduction at the cell membrane, a process by which the interior components.
  2. Lipids are various organic compounds that are hydrophobic (water-fearing). Examples of lipids are fats, waxes, oils, and hormones. One place they can be found is in the membrane structure of cells. The lipid molecule is composed of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached
  3. Lipids are made of a triglyceride that is made from the alcohol glycerol, plus fatty acids. Additions to this basic structure yield great diversity in lipids. Over 10,000 kinds of lipids have been discovered so far, and many work with a huge diversity of proteins for cellular metabolism and material transport

Lipids also act as the structural component of the cell and provide the hydrophobic barrier that allows the separation of the aqueous contents of the cell and subcellular structures. Other lipids, although present in relatively small quantities, play crucial roles as enzyme cofactors, electron carriers, light-absorbing pigments, and hydrophobic. Structural Lipids. Lipids are the major component of the phospholipid bilayer This separates the cell interior from the surrounding; Each membrane components is amphipathic, which means that it has both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region . For membrane lipids, the polar head is the hydrophilic regions while the fatty acid tail Is the hydrophobic regio Structure of lipids. There is a huge variety of different lipids and the chemical structure varies between each of them. Because of this, it is difficult to outline a general structure of a lipid. All lipids do however contain at least one hydrocarbon chain (i.e. a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms) with an acidic end Chapter 6 Structure, Nomenclature, and Properties of Lipids J. Thomas Brenna, PhD and Gavin L. Sacks, PhD Common Abbreviations CMC critical micellar concentration FFA free fatty acids LT leukotrienes LX lipoxins MP melting point NEFA nonesterified fatty acids PG prostaglandins PtdCho phosphatidylcholine PtdEtn phosphatidylethanolamine PtdIns phosphatidylinositol PtdSer phosphatidylserine PUFA.

Lipids Chemistry Structure & Function (More Detailed) 1. LIPID CHEMISTRY Dr.Charles / Dr Ayyub 2. Introduction • Lipids are heterogeneous group of water insoluble (hydrophobic) organic molecules • They are fats, oils, steroids and waxes • Insoluble in water, but soluble in non-polar solvents such as ether, chloroform • They are important dietary constituents providing (a) high energy. Lipid Structure. Lipid. Triglyceride. Fatty acid. Ester bond. A non-polar molecule made from mainly carbon and hydrogen, wit. Made from glycerol and 3 fatty acids, joined by ester bonds. Contains a carboxyl group and an R group. The R group can diff Lipid nanoparticles. Lipid nanoparticles are small spherical particles made of lipids into which various payloads (in the case of the COVID-19 vaccines, mRNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein) can be introduced. These particles are generally less than 100 nm in diameter and made up of—you guessed it—lipids Lipids. Lipids fall under the categories of glycerol or steroid. Lipids are biological molecules that are insoluble in water, but are soluble in non-polar solvents, meaning that they are non-polar.

Lipids- definition, properties, structure, types, examples

Lipid - Wikipedi

  1. For a given volume of lipid, the smaller the droplet size, the greater the surface area, which means more lipase molecules can get to work. As monoglycerides and fatty acids are liberated through the action of lipase, they retain their association with bile acids and complex with other lipids to form structures called micelles. Micelles are.
  2. Types of lipids including fats, waxes, steroids and phospholipids.Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/macromolecules/nucleic-a..
  3. Lipids are large molecules made from smaller units of fatty acids and glycerol.. The structure of a lipid molecule. In the diagram, you can see how three long chains of carbon atoms are attached.
  4. Structure of membrane lipids. Glycerophosphatides. As with triglyceride, the tertiary alcohol glycerol forms the backbone for the glycerophosphatides, but only 2 fatty acids are attached to the 3 possible binding sites, and a phosphate group is bound to the 3rd carbon atom of glycerol
  5. Lipids are one of the four major groups of organic molecules; the other three being proteins, nucleic acids (DNA), and carbohydrates (sugars). Lipids are made up of the same elements as carbohydrates: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. However, lipids tend to contain many more hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms
  6. The structures of different types of lipids are studied and compared. (Questions 1-8) 1._____ Which of the following molecules is a typical fatty acid? a) A molecule that has an even number of carbon atoms in a branched chain. b) An amphipathic dicarboxylic acid with unconjugated double bonds. c) A molecule that has one cis double bond in a.

lipid Definition, Structure, Examples, Functions, Types

Classification, Types, Structure and Properties of Lipids

  1. Another type of lipids are steroids, complex, ringed structures that are found in cell membranes; some function as hormones.The most common types of steroids are sterols, which are steroids containing an OH group.These are mainly hydrophobic molecules, but also have hydrophilic hydroxyl groups.The most common sterol found in animal tissues is cholesterol
  2. Structure, functions, and examples of lipids Lipids , together with carbohydrates , proteins and nucleic acids, are one of the four major classes of biologically essential organic molecules found in all living organisms; their amounts and quality in diet are able to influence cell, tissue and body physiology
  3. The membranes are part and parcel of the organs, tissues, and cells. In the smallest unit of life or a cell, the entire unit is covered by a membrane. In fact, the cell organelles are also protected by a membranous structure differing in features. In this section, we will study the different membrane lipids that constitute this covering sheath and protect the internal things
  4. The role lipids play in viral infection involves the fusion of the viral membrane to the host cell, viral replication, and viral endocytosis and exocytosis. Since lipids play a crucial function in the viral life cycle, we asked whether drugs targeting lipid metabolism, such as statins, can be utilized against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses

2.8: Structure and Function - Lipids and Membranes ..

Chapter 10 - Lipids Structure and Function of Lipids Functions of Lipids o 1) E storage o 2) cellular structure o 3) signaling molecules, cofactors & pigments Faty Acids o carboxylic acids w/hydrocarbon chain to # carbons, start w/carbonyl C *BE ABLE TO NAME/ID FA's BY NAME (ex. 18:1(∆ ) cis-9-octadecenoic acid) exponent=location of double bonds omega = last C is the omega C. The structure of a phospholipid molecule contains two hydrophobic tails of fatty acids and one hydrophilic head of phosphate moiety, jointed together by an alcohol or glycerol molecule [90]. Due to this structural arrangement, PLs form lipid bilayers and are a key component of all the cell membranes This biochemistry video tutorial focuses on lipids. It discusses the basic structure and functions of lipids such as fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, terpenes, waxes, and eicosanoids which include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. My Website: https://www.videotutor.ne A mechanism of formation of LNP-siRNA systems is proposed whereby siRNA is first sandwiched between closely apposed lipid monolayers at pH 4 and subsequently trapped in these structures as the pH is raised to 7.4, whereas ionizable lipid not interacting with siRNA moves from bilayer structure to adopt an amorphous oil phase located in the. Lipids are part of the cell membrane structure which helps maingain cell membrane fluidity and flexibility. Triacylglycerols control the body's internal climate with the goal of maintaining constant temperature. Those who don't have enough fat in their bodies tend to feel cold sooner

Lipid Structure - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

A lipid is an organic compound such as fat or oil. Organisms use lipids to store energy, but lipids have other important roles as well. Lipids consist of repeating units called fatty acids. Fatty acids are organic compounds that have the general formula \(\ce{CH_3(CH_2)_{n}COOH}\), where \(n\) usually ranges from 2 to 28 and is always an even. (j) The structure of triglycerides and phospholipids. To include reference to fatty acids, glycerol, phosphate groups, ester bonds and hydrophobic/ hydrophilic properties. how the plasma membrane is composed of modified lipids and how the structure of phospholipids is related to their functions 2 & 3 are sometimes classified together as simple lipids They have a high hydrocarbon content Classification of Membrane Lipids Two major categories based on the structure and function: 1. Lipids that contain phosphate 2. Lipids that do not contain phosphate -each can be further separated into: • Glycerol-based and sphingosine-base Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic or amphiphilic compounds that are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents and insoluble in water. There are eight major categories of lipids based on their physical properties, such as solubility and polarity: fatty acids and acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids (GPLs), sphingolipids, sterol lipids.

Lipids come in a diversity of structures and functions. Here, we focus on polar/amphiphilic lipids, i.e. membrane-forming lipids present in bacterial membranes, leaving membrane lipids from other microorganisms aside Lipids: structure and classification. Lipids . Fatty acids .-. Palmitic acid, a saturated 16 carbon fatty acid. Notice its carboxyl group, and its long hydrocarbon chain . Oleic acid, a monounsaturated 18 carbon fatty acid. Most monounsaturated natural fatty acids are cis-unsaturated The spectrum of lipid functions can be condensed into the three broad areas of: 1. Storage of energy 2. Structure of cell membranes 3. Signal of chemical biological activities. The four main groups of lipids include: 1. Fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) 2. Glycerides (glycerol-containing lipids) 3. Nonglyceride lipids (sphingolipids.

Lipid A (E. coli) is the glycolipid moiety of the lipopolysaccharide produced by E. coli. It has a role as an Escherichia coli metabolite. It is a lipid A, a dodecanoate ester and a tetradecanoate ester. It is a conjugate acid of a lipid A (4-) (E. coli). Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides Lipids are a class of biomolecules that is defined by their solubility in organic solvents, such as chloroform, and their relative insolubility in water. Interactions among lipids and of lipids with other biomolecules arise largely from their hydrophobic (water-hating) nature. Lipids can be divided into two main categories according to their structures: those that are based on fatty acids.

The best model for the structure of cell membranes involves a bilayer of amphipathic lipids approximately 8 nm wide into which various proteins are embedded. It is a common mistake to assume that this membrane is static. It is not. There is a considerable amount of mobility or flexibility in the hydrocarbon tails of the lipid molecules The molecular structure of lipids results in unique behavior in aqueous environments. Figure 7.12 depicts the structure of a triglyceride.Because all three substituents on the glycerol backbone are long hydrocarbon chains, these compounds are nonpolar and not significantly attracted to polar water molecules—they are hydrophobic A lipid is any biological molecule that has low solubility in water and high solubility in nonpolar organic solvents. There are six major groups of lipids.. Lipids: Definition, Examples, and Structures Published by Admin on July 28, 2021 July 28, 2021. What are Lipids?. Fats also play important functional roles in sustaining nerve impulse transmission, memory storage, and tissue structure. More specifically in the brain, lipids are focal to brain activity in structure and in function. They help form nerve cell membranes, insulate neurons, and facilitate the signaling of electrical impulses throughout the brain

Lipids Basic Biolog

These lipids provide structure and support for the walls of every cell in your body. Communication between cells is also dependent upon lipids in your cells' membranes. Hormone Production. Cholesterol is a type of lipid needed to produce important steroid hormones in your body. Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone and the active form of vitamin. Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.It is the innermost of the three regions of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin molecule, and its hydrophobic nature allows it to anchor the LPS to the outer membrane. While its toxic effects can be damaging, the sensing of lipid A by the human immune system may also be. The term lipids describes compounds such as fats, waxes, phospholipids, oils and other similar compounds. Lipids all have similar properties because they are all molecules made of the same elements with similar chemical structures, but the structures and properties do vary slightly Outline the 'fluid mosaic model' of membrane structure. Describe the main biochemical components of membranes and their orientation. Indicate the major characteristics of membrane proteins (integral, anchored and peripheral) LO1: Recognise the main classes of lipid structures (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids. Lipids are also used to make steroids and waxes. So, if you pick out some earwax and smell it, that's a lipid, too! Get the Wax Out of Your Ears Waxes are used to coat and protect things in nature. Bees make wax. It can be used for structures, such as the bees' honeycombs. Your ears make wax. It is used to protect the inside of your ear

Lipid classification, structures and tool

Phospholipid Bilayer: All cells are surrounded by the cell membranes, and this characteristic best portrayed by the Fluid Mosaic Model.According to this model, which was postulated by Singer and Nicolson during the 1970s, plasma membranes are composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that are arranged in a mosaic-like manner.. The fundamental structure of the plasma membrane is the. Xu, X. and London, E. (2000) The effect of sterol structure on membrane lipid domains reveals how cholesterol can induce lipid domain formation. Biochemistry 39, 843-849. PubMed CAS Google Scholar 101

Lipid - The Definitive Guide Biology Dictionar

Lipids include fats, oils, and cholesterol, as well as other compounds that are less well known, but very important for the operation of our bodies. 19.1 What Lipids Are Lipids are a class of compounds that are defined by how they are isolated, rather than by their composition. This makes them different from all of the other molecules we've. The interactions of PLEKHA7 with membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol (PIP) lipids are critical for cell signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Here, we describe the structural basis for PIP recognition by its PH domain and provide a roadmap for understanding how this contributes to the functions of PLEKHA7

Lubricants | Free Full-Text | Experimental Investigations

Lipids: Structure and Function ScienceDirec

  1. s A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vita
  2. Thus, the intercellular lipid structure was the same as in other samples. The origin of the peak is unknown, but this sample may have been obtained from a person who used a particular kind of lipids for skin care which produced an additional large peak in the small angle region
  3. The lipids mediating the dimerization of PSII core complexes show an enrichment of MGDG and eight of the 14 lipids located at the interface are MGDG molecules (Guskov et al. 2009; Kern and Guskov 2011). The second important cluster of lipids within the PSII structure is composed of eight lipids

Video: Lipids - Chemistr

Lipids and Lipoproteins - Part 4 (Reverse CholesterolEndoplasmic Reticulum

Lipids (article) Macromolecules Khan Academ

Having demonstrated the structure-based stability of lipid-polymers under static conditions, we set out to evaluate the impact of mechanical stress on the lipid-polymer loaded on the RBCs' surface. Unlike static cell culture conditions, cells are exposed to mechanical stresses at various levels of the circulatory system under physiological. This session will introduce the general structure and function of the biological macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Learning Objectives . To understand the general structure and properties of lipids and phospholipids and their function in the cell The structure of the lipid bilayer is determined in large part by the hydrophobic effect (which also controls protein struc-ture). In particular, it is the repulsion of the lipid hydrocarbon chains by the water structure that drives these chains into an environment sequestered fro 3.2.2: Carbohydrate, Lipid and Protein Structures. Shown below are the different structures (organic) of key carbohydrate, lipid and protein structures. Can you guess the identity of each structure? Place your mouse over the chemical structure for identification Lipids II. These four tubes have just been removed from the freezer (a bit colder than 0' C or 32' F, the freezing point of water.) Notice that the lard (A), and butter (D) are solid, while both oils (B,C) remain liquid despite the freezing temperature. As the tubes warm up to room temperature (about 21' C, or 72' F), they remain much the same

Don’t Throw Out Your Cannabis Roots Just Yet

Structure and Function of Lipids - Video & Lesson

Recent studies of structure-function relationships in biological membranes have revealed fundamental concepts concerning the regulation of cellular membrane function by membrane lipids. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles played by two membrane lipids: cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine The phospholipids are generally considered to be structural or functional lipid, being incorporated to a large extent in the membrane structure of cell and subcellular particles. The triglycerides are more often storage lipids and reflect the fatty acid composition of the diet to a greater extent than do the phospholipids Complex lipids. Carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , phosphorus and nitrogen are involved in their structure , such as phospholipids that are present in the cell membranes of the animals and the plants, Molecular structure is similar to the structure of fat molecules but with a phosphate group and choline replacing the third fatty acid in fats Lipids are also the building blocks of many hormones and are an important constituent of the plasma membrane. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids. Figure 2.17 Hydrophobic lipids in the fur of aquatic mammals, such as this river otter, protect them from the elements

Lipid Structure, Function and Types - Learn More About It

Lipid Energy Storage. Gram for gram, lipids — like butter and oils — provide more than twice as many calories as other macronutrients (both carbs and protein), at 9 calories per gram, according to the Cleveland Clinic. The more calories a food contains, the more energy it can provide to the body. But any excess calories that do not need to. Lipids have diverse structures, but the most common functional groups are ester (both carboxylate and phosphate) and alcohol groups. Other functional groups are amide and ketone groups. Waxes such as beeswax have an ester group. Triglycerides (fats) such as tristearin have ester groups. Phospholipids such as lecithin contain carboxylate and phosphate groups Structure. Micelles are lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions. The formation of a micelle is a response to the amphipathic nature of fatty acids, meaning that they contain both hydrophilic regions (polar head groups) as well as hydrophobic regions (the long hydrophobic chain) The issue is now to understand the cellular functions of this complexity. In this Perspective, we focus on the interface of integral transmembrane proteins and membrane lipids in eukaryotic cells. Clarifying how proteins and lipids interact with each other will be important for unraveling membrane protein structure and function

Lipids Structure & Functions A-Level Biology Revision Note

Lipids are also the building blocks of many hormones and are an important constituent of all cellular membranes. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids. Figure 3.12 Hydrophobic lipids in aquatic mammals' fur, such as this river otter, protect them from the elements Lipids: 1. What elements are present in lipids? 2. Describe the general structure of a triglycerol molecule,including the types of bonds involved (you may like to draw a labelled diagram). 3. Explain the differences between saturated,monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 4. Describe the general structure of a phospholipid The Journal of Lipid Research focuses on the science of lipids in health and disease. The journal emphasizes lipid function and the biochemical and genetic regulation of lipid metabolism and aims to be on the forefront of the emerging areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics as they relate to lipid metabolism and function Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The general empirical structure for carbohydrates is (CH2O)n. They are organic compounds organized in the form of aldehydes or ketones with multiple hydroxyl groups coming off the carbon chain. The building blocks of all carbohydrates are simple sugars called monosaccharides Because the lamellar lipid layers also repel water, water molecules are held between the cell envelope lipids and the lipid layer. This cellular structure helps maintain the water balance in the skin, allowing trapped water molecules to stay closer to the surface, thereby giving skin a healthy and hydrated glow

What about the structure of a lipoprotein allows the transport of hydrophobic lipids in plasma which is primarily water? There are four major lipoproteins in human plasma. Can you describe each type, its origin and the role it plays in lipid metabolism Nazemidashtarjandi S, Vahedi A, Farnoud AM. Lipid Chemical Structure Modulates the Disruptive Effects of Nanomaterials on Membrane Models. Langmuir. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00295. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32312045. PubMed ID: 3231204

Metabolism of chromoproteids and biochemistry of the liverMycobacterium leprae* - microbewiki