What causes black bark on apple trees

Apple Trees With Black Bark Home Guides SF Gat

  1. Black bark, black shriveled twigs, shoots, leaves and fruit are signs of a fire blight infection. In addition, flowers become brown and shriveled, while brown cankers develop on limbs. These areas..
  2. Minnesota's severe cold often injures apple trees. Tree tissue that's damaged by cold is susceptible to infection by black rot. Trees damaged by drought stress or waterlogged soils are more likely to be affected by black rot, including: Apple trees grown on sandy soils without supplemental irrigation
  3. Apple canker is a fungal disease that targets the bark of apple trees, causing sunken lesions. Bark may chip off of old cankers, exposing dead brown wood underneath. The disease may eventually kill..
  4. Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease affecting apple trees. Fire blight causes the formation of cankers on trunk, twigs and branches that oozes a pale..
  5. Apple scab appears as gray-brown or black spots on the apple's flesh. It also causes deformed fruit, cracking of the skin and velvety lesions on the leaves. It usually appears early in the growing season. Planting scab-resistant varieties and pruning trees so that there is good air circulation helps prevent scab
  6. Chemical fungicide Black spot is a plant disease that, as the name implies, causes black spots on the plants it infects. One plant prone to black spot disease is the apple tree, though black spot in apple trees is widely known as apple scab

Symptoms: Black rot causes frogeye leaf spots, fruit rot, and cankers on branches. Infected leaves form spots thought to look like frog eyes with reddish edges and tan middles. Large, brown, rotten spots develop on the apple, most commonly on the blossom end. Although the surface of the apple is brown, the flesh of the apple remains firm pest and diseases affecting apple tree branches and trunk BARK CRACKED, PATCHES OF BARK SUNKEN DOWN Canker is a fungal infection which enters tree wood at the site of existing damage, normally caused by bad pruning techniques although damage by woolly aphid (see above) can also allow the fungus to enter the tree 3. The apple leaves are curled and distorted with black sticky patches. Apple tree leaves curled and wrinkled from aphid damage. This is classic aphid damage and is typically most noticeable on the underside of apple leaves. Aphids on their own aren't likely to cause much damage to your apple crop, though you can use insecticidal soap to. Fruit trees can become diseased and black rot is one of the worst. Complete elimination of the portion of the branch is required. Sometimes removing the whol.. Apple scab is one of the most common and most serious diseases that afflict apple trees. It usually appears in early to mid-spring and is more prevalent during rainy weather. The disease is caused by the fungus Venturia inqequalis, which overwinters in infected leaves left on the ground

Black Rot - Black rot apple disease can appear in one or a combination of three different forms: black fruit rot, frogeye leaf spot, and black rot limb canker. Black fruit rot - This form of black rot is a blossom end rot, similar to that found in tomatoes Even in winter, the tissues of an apple tree contain moisture. During periods when the temperatures fluctuate rapidly between freezing and thawing, moisture expands and contracts inside the bark and the wood beneath. In some cases, this continual expansion and contraction causes the thin layer of outer bark to split and expose the wood Primarily affecting older apple trees, the sappy bark fungus (Trametes versicolor) typically enters the tree at a pruning site and moves on to infect the surrounding tissues and other parts of the.. You'll see the first sign of apple scab in the form of a lesion on the tree's new leaves, in early spring or mid-spring. The lesion will be darker than the leaf color; on the leaf's underside (which is light green), lesions will be olive-colored, and on top of the leaf (which is a darker green), lesions will be black Black rot (Diplodia seriata): Black rot causes black, blotchy discoloration on the tree trunks and limbs. It is commonly introduced by winter injury. Black rot cannot be treated once it infects the wood, except by pruning out affected limbs

Black rot of apple UMN Extensio

Asian pears are highly susceptible to a bacterial infection that blackens them from their leaves to roots. Called fire blight, it typically attacks in spring. Blackening at other times signals an.. Another possible cause for a gnarly prominence might be crown galls on apple tree limbs. Apple tree crown gall causes tumor-like galls to form predominately on the roots and trunks but, on occasion, the branches of not just apples but many other shrubs and trees can be affected as well. Galls interrupt the flow of water and nutrients in the tree Apple scab disease is caused by a fungus, which may develop most commonly in warm, moist environments. If your crabapple tree receives too much moisture, whether from excess rain, irrigation, or a lack of sunlight, the fungal growth is likely to occur. Prevention is your best option for treatment

The Bark Is Breaking on the Apple Tree: What Do I Do About

  1. Control methods for above-ground Woolly Apple Aphids include mechanical, biological, and chemical: Mechanical: brush the aphids off the tree with a stiff-bristled brush, or spray them off with a hose. Try not to damage the bark with this method (eg, don't use a metal grill-cleaning brush, and don't use a pressure washer on high)
  2. Apple trees are small to medium sized trees reaching heights of 5-10 m (16.4-32.8 ft), with a central trunk which divides into several branches. The leaves of the tree are oval in shape and can reach up to 13 cm (5.1 in) in length and 7 cm (2.8 in) in width
  3. Shaggy, smooth, papery-tree bark comes in all sorts of textures and shades. But no matter its appearance, that bark's not just there for looks! A tree's outermost layer of bark protects it from outside stressors, like extreme temperatures, insects or pecking birds. So, when intruders break through the bark, it can be bad news for the tree
  4. Insect damage, fungal infections, fire blight or stony pit virus can cause black leaves on pear trees. Frost damage, spider mite or pear psylla infestations, blossom blast, pear scab or sooty mold cause leaves with black tips. Most often, leaves on pear trees turn black due to fire blight, a highly contagious bacterial infection
  5. Apple trees most commonly get leaf curl from underwatering, poor nutrients, and aphids. The best way to prevent leaf curl is to only water your apple tree when the first 2-4 inches of soil gets dry. For nutrients, apple trees prefer a loamy soil with a pH of 5.8-7.0. For aphids, use water, neem oil, or ladybugs
  6. When a young backyard apple tree dies, the cause is often insect borers. The most important insect borer attacking home apple trees in Maine is the roundheaded apple tree borer. Images: larvae and adult. Adult roundhead apple tree borer beetles begin emerging around June 10; egg laying begins around June 20, peaks in the last [

It attacks fruit trees, such as apple and pear, and a wide variety of shade and forest trees, such as oak, maple, poplar, elm, sycamore, walnut and hickory. Damage The bark over infested areas often is dead and dark-colored. Young trees can be girdled and killed, and larger trees can be seriously injured through the loss of large portions of bark However, the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) feeds on the bark of small twigs, around pruning cuts, and on the roots of apple trees. The feeding causes the tree to form knobby galls, which can occur on the twigs and roots. Heavy damage can reduce the vigor of the tree Severe black knot infections may cause general tree decline or death if galls girdle large limbs, or tree trunks. The fungus Apiosporina morbosa , causes black knot. Spores of the fungus are released from these galls and infect new branches in late spring/early summer during periods of wet weather and mild temperatures (55-75°F) Causes of Apple Scab . The fungus that causes apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) overwinters in diseased leaves on the ground. In the spring, the fungus in the leaves produces spores and releases them into the air. The spores are then carried by wind, rain, or irrigation to growing tips, leaves, flowers, or developing fruit on the same tree or of. The wide host range of this fungus bodes poorly for apple trees because fungal inoculum infests small pieces of wood in the soil in the form of mycelia, and these can go on to infect apples. Infected apple trees have reduced terminal shoot growth, and their leaves may turn purple in the fall much earlier than those of healthy trees

About Apple Tree Bark Disease Home Guides SF Gat

What Causes Black Spots on the Apples of My Trees? Hunke

How to Treat Black Spot Disease for Apple Trees eHo

Apple trees have bark that is gray and scaly. During the growing season, look for apple tree leaves—coarse and oval—and blossoms, which are pink or white, blooming in spring, made up of 5 petals, and up to three-quarters of an inch across. Many apple trees will also have spurs, or thorn-like growths, along the branches Fireblight can destroy an apple tree, while mildew and scab can dramatically reduce the apple crop and even cause the tree to (drop)all its leaves. Apples have worms - Apple Maggots. Small Brown Spots on Fruit - Black Rot. Tunnels inside of apples - Codling Moth. Tiny Pale-yellow Spots on Leaves - Cedar Apple Rust Bleeding bark on trees and other woody plants often leads to concern when it's discovered by tree growers and yard tree owners. Gum or sap draining from a tree trunk or limbs is common in trees in.

Disease description: Neofabraea causes perennial canker on apple trees. On pear trees, it may survive on the dead bark. Perennial canker is a problem east of the Cascades where winters are colder and summers tend to be dry and hot. The cankers are composed of series of concentric rings because growth of the canker is renewed annually Affected trees may leak copious amounts of liquid out of their trunks or branches, discoloring the bark and dripping onto the surrounding ground. Bacterial wetwood occurs as after bacteria infect the wood of a tree. Bacteria can enter the wood through any wound in a trunk, limb or root. Once inside the tree, certain bacteria (called anaerobes. I volunteered at a heritage garden (shameless plug for a place worth visiting) that had old crab apple and their bark did exfoliate or peel in little scales about two inches high by an inch wide. This is normal for mature crab apple and apple trees. What is in your pictures doesn't look like a mature tree with a trunk over eight inches in diameter and neither is the peeling all over the trunk Apple Scab. Starting in early spring, apple scab appears on the underside of leaves, then spreads to other parts of the apple tree. Spores are moved by spring rain, and they infect new leaves and fruit, according to Washington State University (WSU). You may find black, sooty lesions on leaves, blossoms, sepals, petioles, pedicels, shoots, and bud scales

Black rot is an important disease of apple caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria obtusa. Black rot fungus infects a wide variety of hardwood trees, including apple and pear. Infected trees are often a source of infection for nearby younger bearing blocks. Northern Spy, Cortland, Gala, Honeycrisp, McIntosh and Empire are most often infected. Bacterial canker is an infection that causes split bark and weeping cankers on the stems, branches, and trunks of affected peach trees. Bacterial canker is a serious condition that can kill your peach tree, especially if lesions appear low on the trunk and cause girdling Lightning strikes can also fracture the bark, but that damage is usually more pronounced and easier to identify. If the tree is growing quickly, the growth can also cause the bark to split. In this case, I feel the cause for the cracking was due to the tree growing quickly, faster than the bark could keep up with the growth of the tree. As long.

The tiny insects also leave behind a sticky substance that will attract ants and turn black with mold. Red mites are identified by clusters of tiny red eggs laid on the tree bark. The eggs will hatch in the spring and 1,000's of red mites will burrow under the bark of the apple tree and will place it under stress, causing the apples to be. Description. Apple Scab is one of the most common diseases that attack apple trees. Apple Scab is caused by a fungus (Venturia inaequalis) which is most prevalent and aggressive in geographical areas where spring weather is mild (about 60 to 70 degrees F) and conditions are wet.Apple Scab initially appears as small brown spots on the undersides of leaves, and then spreading to the top of the.

Apple Tree Diseases: How to Treat Them - Lawnstarte

  1. Fire blight is one of the biggest and most destructive plant diseases that threatens pear and apple trees. Aside from pome trees, fire blight also affects loquat, cotoneaster, and pyracantha plants, among other ornamental plants. Fire blight can kill branches, create water-soaked flowers, discolor leaves and bark, and even kill entire plants
  2. Black knot, which is caused by the Dibotryon morbosum fungus, causes long, hard, black knots to appear on the plum tree branches and sometimes on the main trunk. Perennial canker is a similar fungal infection caused by the Valsa cincta and V. leucostoma fungi, and causes oval cankers to appear on the branches and trunk. In both cases, the knots and cankers eventually girdle the tree and kill it
  3. Problems of Crabapple. Flowers and Leaves Wilt; Bark Cankered - New shoots may wilt suddenly in late spring, turn black or brown and die. The dead leaves hang downward on the affected twigs giving the tree the appearance of having been scorched. Fire Blight - This disease, caused by a bacterium, is spread by insects and rain
  4. The maple trunk gradually turns black as sooty mold accumulates on the honeydew that the scales produce. Gloomy scales often go undetected for years due to their size. They're about the size of a pin head (1/16 to 1/8 of an inch) and look like very small bumps on the bark of the tree. Although they blend into the bark very well, they're.


  1. Pears are vulnerable to many of the same problems as apple trees, according to University of New Hampshire Extension. Many of these diseases and insects only attack fruit, while others can decimate twigs, branches and bark. Only a few will cause pear leaves to blacken
  2. Apple scab is a disease caused by Venturia inaequalis - a sac fungus that is thought to be historically native to Central Asia but now found nearly everywhere apple trees grow. The fungus can affect a wide variety of plants and trees, but it seems most comfortable living on apple trees, including cultivated apples as well as wild-type crabapples
  3. The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus ) lagerstromiae (Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. The scale is a sucking insect that feeds on the phloem (sap) of plants. As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as honeydew (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects)

23 Common Apple Tree Problems & How To Fix The

Trees that are most susceptible to this type of injury are those with thin bark, such as certain fruit trees. Newly planted trees or young trees are more prone to bark splitting. Bark splits are not likely to be fatal to trees, although they will, in some cases, allow entry of disease organisms, which can cause decay Most fruit trees owners have heard of fire blight; it's one of the more dreaded pear tree diseases. It infects a range of fruit trees and bushes. This bacterial disease causes the shoots and blossoms on your fruit tree to shrivel and turn black. It looks like the plant has been scorched by fire, hence the name Frost cracks are vertical cracks in the stems of trees. On sunny days in the winter, bark will warm up, causing cells to expand in the bark and wood directly below the bark. As the sun sets, temperatures drop quickly, causing the bark to cool and contract. The wood under the bark does not cool as quickly, causing the bark to split Using high psi water to get the white fungus off my Italian Cypress trees. I think fertilizing them with Black Kow fertilizer was a mistake and caused the fu..

Spruce diseases. Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora kunzei (also known as Valsa kunzei var. piceae ), is the most prevalent and destructive fungal disease of Norway and Colorado blue spruce. Occasionally, Cytospora canker is found on Douglas-fir, hemlock, and larch. Susceptibility varies widely among species, but generally trees. This wood-boring beetle lays eggs on the bark of the aspen. The larvae then tunnel, weakening the wood. Entry and exit holes of the beetle invite fungi, which can result in limb breakage. Quick Facts. Shade tree borers are insects that develop underneath the bark of trees and shrubs. Certain beetles and moths are the most common borers

Black pox is a fungus disease caused by Helminthosporium papulosum. It is considered to be of minor economic importance. When it occurs, the disease can affect apple bark, fruit, and foliage. It is more common from southern Virginia southward than in the northern mid-Atlantic region. The same fungus causes blister canker on pear Apple tree trunk black with fungus #279454. Asked September 20, 2015, 12:18 PM EDT. I have an apple tree that I planted 9 years ago and last fall I noticed that the trunk had turned black and started to crack. I sprayed the tree this spring with a fungicide, soaking the entire tree limbs, leaves and trunk. The fungus (disease) has gotten much. Apple scab is the most common disease of apple and crabapple trees in Minnesota. Scab is caused by a fungus that infects both leaves and fruit. Scabby fruit are often unfit for eating. Infected leaves have olive green to brown spots. Leaves with many leaf spots turn yellow and fall off early This fungus gets into plum and apple trees through wounds in bark caused by insects, natural stressors, and/or improper pruning. It causes cankers that first appear on limbs as reddish-brown discolouration in the bark; starting out small, these cankers can get up to 50 centimetres in length along the infected limb, cracking the bark and killing it Quick facts. In Minnesota, fire blight is most often seen on apple, crabapple and mountain ash trees. Fire blight is a disease that can kill blossoms and shoots and cause dieback of branches from cankers. Severe fire blight can cause trees to die. Young leaves and shoots wilt and bend downward forming the shape of a hook

Prune. Another way to get rid of black knot is pruning. Pruning involves cutting off the branches, twigs, or stems that show signs of the disease. It is essential to cut about 2-4 inches below the growth to remove all infected parts. The cut-off part should be burned or disposed of properly because they can still infect susceptible trees Improper pruning, poorly cut branches, wildlife damage or other environmental impact can cause bacteria to get past the protective bark, causing an infection. When trees have a bacterial infection, you'll often see the tree go into a state of overall decline combined with open, oozing wounds Shade tree borers include a number of insects species that develop underneath the bark of woody plants. Most of these insects can attack only dying trees, felled logs, or trees under stress. Stress to woody plants may be the result of mechanical injury, recent transplanting, over-watering, or drought. These borers often are incorrectly blamed. Fire blight is a common and very destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears (Figure 1). The disease is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, which can infect and cause severe damage to many plants in the rose (Rosaceae) family (Table 1). On apples and pears, the disease can kill blossoms, fruit, shoots, twigs, branches and entire trees 5. Environmental Causes. Credit: quattrostagioni. Frost. Sun Scalding. Can affect lifespan of tree. One of the biggest reasons that we see bark peeling from a tree are the effects from the environment. Everything from the extreme cold to the extreme heat can make your trees start to peel. Sun scalding and frost, which often go hand in hand, can.

Powdery mildew is a fungal disease of apple trees. It looks like powder on the leaves and bark of the apple tree. You can see powdery mildew during times of high humidity, and it also grows well during hot, dry weather. If left untreated, powdery mildew causes major weakening of the apple tree. The new growth is affected first It can spread to the bark of the tree and will overwinter - ready to affect the tree in the spring growing season. A good fungicidal spray in early winter will help this and other fungal diseases of apple trees. Brown Leaves and Spots. Winter Wash for Fruit Trees. Lichen on Apple Trees

The bark coming off can be from many causes, too-- animal damage, insect damage, lightning strike, frost cracks, disease, improperly removed branch; or there are some trees (Paperbark Maple and Silver Maple are two) that naturally peel. Young trees as they grow will naturally lose some outer bark All kinds of trees can get fungal infections. There are a number of signs that show that a tree is infected. Some symptoms include wilted leaves, bark discoloration and rotting or sunken parts of the tree bark. There are sprays that can be used to prevent future fungal infections

Diseases Of Fruit Trees In The Garden

Lightning damage in apple orchards is not especially common, but when it occurs it often causes great consternation because trees that were completely healthy one day will have browned leaves and dead bark just a day or two later. I've been called to diagnose tree deaths caused by lightning only about six or eight times over the past 35 years Several other limb, trunk, and root diseases cause oozing bark and can stunt and sometimes kill trees. Sunburn discoloring Identification tip: Sunburn causes bark cankers on exposed wood, usually on the south and west sides of trunks that are not whitewashed and that lack trunk wraps. Citrus canker (636 KB, PDF) lesion Pear and quince trees are highly susceptible, along with apple, crabapple, and firethorn trees. Less commonly, fire blight infects hawthorn, loquat, mountain ash, and other related plants. This disease is influenced by seasonal weather and prefers to attack the plant's blossoms, gradually moving to the twigs and branches of the plant

Heavy infections of frog-eye leaf spot can cause leaves to turn yellow and drop. Black rot symptoms on tree trunks and limbs appear as cankers, which are reddish brown in colour and are slightly sunken. As the wood ages it becomes shrunken and layers of bark begin to peel back. Black rot also causes small purple black spots on the fruit The most common cause for splitting tree bark is from frost cracking or sun scald.. Sun Scald most often occurs on the south to southwest side of tree trunks on young trees with thin bark. On a warm winter days, the direct sun's heat warms up the surface of the bark. Later that night, these areas rapidly re-freeze There are over 30 common tree diseases that contribute to health decline and death of most of the trees in the United States. This list of tree diseases causes most tree health problems and death.

SMALL BLACK LEECHES / SLUGS ON LEAVES. This is the Pear Slug Sawfly (Caliroa cerasi). It affects pear, cherry and apple trees as well as some ornamental shrubs, hawthorns in particular. On fruit trees, the black leech like creatures are in fact green but covered with black slime Symptoms: Cherry tree branches develop dark, depressed cankers that cause the tree branch to wilt. An amber-colored gum may appear at the edge of the canker. The canker will eventually girdle the limb and cause it to die. Causes: Black pycnidia, spore-producing structures, appear on the canker. These black pycnidia will turn white over time Bark and turf where the ooze lands may be killed. Affected wood within the tree has a water-soaked appearance but is rarely rotted. Many bacteria: Wetwood does no apparent damage to the tree unless the tree comes under some other severe stress. Protect the tree from stresses such as soil compaction, excavation, or drought Common Diseases of Apple Trees. Apple Scab - Apple scab is an apple tree disease that leaves warty, brown bumps on the leaves and fruit. It is a fungus that primarily affects trees in areas that have high humidity. Black fruit rot - This form of black rot is a blossom end rot, similar to that found in tomatoes The black knot is a fungal pathology typical for the genus of Prunus, fruit and ornamental cherries, and plums in particular. This tree bark skin disease is caused by Apiosporina morbosa that may dwell on the host plant for several years. Black knots start as greenish-brown and brown formations (swellings) during the first year that grow into.


The woolly apple aphid may occur on the above-ground portions or roots of the apple tree. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. The aerial colonies can be found in several locations on the tree, but shoots and watersprouts are favored locations. Overwintering colonies are usually. As Hunker points out, Beech trees have a light gray bark, and cherry trees have a red-brown bark. Black walnut trees have very dark bark, while birch trees have white or silvery bark

Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (let's call it CMBS) is a small insect that appears as a white or gray felt-like encrustation. CMBS might be found anywhere on crapemyrtles, and often appears near pruning sites and branch crotches of more mature wood. Often times, the first sign of CMBS is the black sooty mold on the tree bark These apple trees have had their trunk coated with Bordeaux mixture, a copper sulfate and calcium oxide in water. This helps to prevent a powdery mildew infection. Though fairly toxic, this method of prevention is considered organic. The ultimate prevention technique is to plant resistant varieties

Common Diseases of Apple Trees - Gardening Channe

Symptoms: Dark streaks of sap oozing from the bark, which typically carries an unpleasant odor. Causes: Many different bacterias cause this as they enter the tree through wounded bark. Risk level: All oaks can develop this, but pin oaks are especially prone. Treatment: Avoid wounding the bark to prevent further stress. Care for sick trees as. Powdery mildew is a common fungal disease of trees and shrubs in Minnesota. White to gray, powdery spots, blotches or felt-like mats form on leaves, stems and buds of infected plants. Disease is often most severe on young leaves and green shoots. Powdery mildew does not cause significant damage to the health of the tree and does not require. When looking at a tree or shrub and seeing any spots on the plant, the usual culprit is fungal. The identifying spots can range in color from black, brown, red, orange, yellow to white, and come in a variety of shapes and sizes The honeydew often becomes a food source for the sooty mold fungus which can turn surfaces beneath the tree black or mottled. I recommend you contact a certified arborist in your area and have them come out and take a look. You can set up a free consultation with your local Davey office by calling (586) 580-7393

Apple Tree Diseases: Common Problems Growing Apple Tre

Symptoms An infected tree may be numerous small dead twigs that line up one side of the trunk, or small cankers on the trunk. Heavily infected trees may have leaves that wilt over part or all of the canopy. Bark sloughs away exposing dark patches of the fungal stroma and powdery spores. Trees may have a greenish-brown-to-greenish-yellow stain. The caterpillar is the damaging stage, feeding under the bark of host trees. It is a white-orange color with numerous spots on its body. The adult is white with six black dots on the thorax and black markings on the remainder of the body. Adults may be active June-September and larvae feed inside of plants for 2-3 years Sugar apple trees make an attractive tree in the home landscape. Sugar apple trees should be planted in full sun and at least 15 to 20 ft (4.6-6.1 m) from adjacent trees and structures and power lines. Trees planted too close to other trees or structures may not grow normally or produce much fruit due to shading

Garden Guides Why Is the Bark on My Apple Tree Splitting

You will oftentime see black sooty mold in addition to the white bark scale. Black sooty mold literally looks like black dust on your leaves and bark. The scale sucks the sap from your branches and tree trunks and then the sugars and yeast in the sap attracts the mold. They go hand in hand, but black sooty mold is really just a cosmetic issue If tree is dead, inspect roots for hard, woody 'tumors'. Note: many things can cause stunted trees. Control. Consult County Extension Agent; Scale. Usually on bark of young twigs and branches, encrusted with small (1/16) hard, circular, scaly raised bumps with yellow centers, may also be on fruit. Sap feeding weakens the tree. Natural. Large doses can cause heart rhythm abnormalities. Burning Bush, Euonymus occidentalis, European Spindle Tree, Spindle Tree, Wahoo Euphorbia milii Oral and abdominal irritation, occasionnally causes vomiting. Low toxicity. Crown of Thorns, Pencil Cactus Euphorbia pulcherrima Oral and abdominal irritation, occasionnally causes vomiting. Low toxicity

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