Home

Are battery hens illegal in the UK

UK battery farms break EU rules - BBC New

  1. Egg producers had more than a decade to phase out old-style battery cages. Up to 500,000 hens are being kept in battery cages on farms in the UK despite an EU-wide ban which came into force at the..
  2. But while almost all British egg producers will be compliant with the new EU-wide law - which will ban the keeping of egg-laying hens in barren battery cages from this Sunday - many European..
  3. Around 38 million commercial egg laying hens were kept in the UK in 2017. In the UK the proportion of eggs produced in the different systems in 2017 was: 48 percent* of eggs produced in battery cages. 1 percent* in barn systems. 51 percent* in free-range systems (of which 2 percent were organic systems). *figures rounded up/down

This was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government Agriculture Minister Jim Paice today made it clear that British consumers deserve to see only eggs.. Egg laying hens are one of the few types of farm animal in the UK that, on some farms, are still kept in close-confinement cage systems for all of their productive lives. We are very concerned that hens can't carry out all of their important natural behaviours properly in such an environment. We want to see all laying hens kept in well-managed. In January 2012 a crucial ban on the barren battery cage came in to force across the EU - after decades of campaigning by animal welfare groups, including my own, Compassion in World Farming. This.. Battery caged hens egg import ban considered. The UK is considering imposing an import ban on eggs from hens kept in battery cages to protect domestic producers, a peer has said. UK producers must.

The end of battery farms in Britain - but not Europe The

  1. g is carried out ultimately to protect birds from hurting each other in what is an unnatural commercial environment. Hens can recognise others within a flock of up to 90 with each bird knowing its position within the pecking order. It is acceptance of the pecking order that keeps a flock happy; every hen knowing her place
  2. g practices being used, the food may be supplemented with antibiotics to forestall infection, a common problem in battery hens, and the food may also be amended with vita
  3. An EU ban on barren battery cages came into force in 2012, but many commercial egg-laying hens are still kept in enriched cages. Animal Equality says a ban on cages in Britain would save 16..
  4. The 2012 battery cage ban was publicised as heralding an end to caged hens throughout Europe, but it created a widely held misconception that all laying hens in the UK are now either free range or barn birds
  5. It is illegal to feed your hens kitchen scraps, unless from a vegan household. Hens thrive on a well-balanced diet and should only be given nutritional treats specifically designed for hens, which you can buy on our online shop. Too many treats can disrupt egg production and affect shell quality. Hens can become overweight with too many treats

Laying hens farming - Laying hens welfare - Chicken welfar

  1. New rules on battery hens could allow cut-price overseas competitors with poorer welfare standards to undercut the UK's egg producers, an influential committee of MPs warned on Friday
  2. The Hens House. A charity for re-housing of battery hens with list of local co-ordinators RSPCA news article on how the UK Government are already trying to bend the rules. HenRescue Rescue Poultry and other creatures. A piece of card the size of a battery cage for 5 hens. One of my ex-batts next to it
  3. Hens in barren battery cages While barren battery cages were banned in the EU in 2012, the majority of laying hens in the rest of the world remain confined within them. Each battery cage generally houses up to 10 birds
RSPCA warns shoppers about 'illegal eggs' - BBC News

Facts about Battery Hens 3: the decrease of battery hens. The number of battery hens used to care the egg laying chicken is decreased from time to time in Europe after the introduction of the European Union Council Directive. Due to the welfare reason, the battery hen was banned. Facts about Battery Hens 4: the reason of bannin An EU-wide ban on battery hens comes into force in January, but 13 out of 27 nations say they will not comply. The government says it has taken steps to protect UK farmers from being undercut - by.. Numerous battery hen re-homing charities work with the British farmers to intercept the chickens otherwise destined for slaughter. They also highlight the plight of the battery hen and intensive farming in general and raise funds to enable them to help more of the 16 million battery hens in the UK each year In the UK, there are approximately 31 million egg laying hens. Over £400 million has been spent to meet the standards. In January 2012, reports stated that figures from the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) indicate 423,000 hens on 32 farms in the UK were still being housed in battery cages Despite this, battery hens are afforded little protection under the Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals: Domestic Poultry (4th Edition) (the Poultry Code) or State and Territory animal welfare laws, which permit permanent confinement and debeaking

Today, nearly 16 months after the EU-wide ban on the barren battery hen cage came into force, the EU Commission referred the last two non-compliant countries to Court. Today, nearly 16 months after the EU-wide ban on the barren battery hen cage came into force, the EU Commission referred the last two non-compliant countries to Court.. Several celebrities keep chickens in their gardens, such as Jamie Oliver, Monty Don, Billie Piper, and Sadie Frost. It has even been reported that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge raise chickens at their Norfolk home that they hatched from eggs. There could now be up to one million chicken-keepers in the UK after a surge in newcomers to the. UK - Research by the RSPCA has revealed that almost eight out of ten people in England and Wales (78 per cent) want action to stop eggs laid by hens in illegal barren battery cages coming into the UK For more on the use of chickens for food, click here . Egg-laying chickens are often referred to as cage hens or battery hens because they live their life in a battery cage. Typically, each battery cage is a 12-inch by 18-inch wire cage that may hold up to six birds. In a six-bird cage, each bird would have approximately 36 in2 of room

New safeguards for chickens - GOV

A chicken - being described as Britain's last battery hen - has been given a new home in Devon. The hen, named Liberty, was re-housed in time for the EU-wide ban on small, cramped cages. From 1. As the UK prepares to end live exports, the Government is preparing to do a deal with Australia which allows beef cattle to be transported for up to 48 hours without food or water in intense heat. Battery cages for poultry. The UK banned battery cages for laying hens in 2012 but these are still used in Australia Chickens and other poultry are not excluded from the more general acts, and like other animals, must be farmed, slaughtered, and transported humanely. i. The Laying Hen Directive. The Laying Hen Directive currently in force is most notable for its decision to outlaw the use of battery cages for laying hens by January 1, 2012 Battery Hens don't live very long in their small cages. Imagine if you didn't live very long because of how you were looked after. If it was illegal to buy eggs from another country where Battery Hens are kept in terrible conditions, at least the UK would not be supporting animal cruelty to chickens. -Elliot (Age 7) For further information on battery hens in the United Kingdom (the UK is a member state of the European Union), contact The Farm Animal Welfare Network, PO Box 40, Holmfirth, Huddersfield HD7 1QY UK. Tel 01484 688650; fax 01484 689408. (Postal code: 011 44

Laying Hens - Chicken Welfare - Battery Farmin

  1. The welfare of hens in free range systems 1. Introduction Although free range systems are less intensive forms of egg production, the need for diligent and knowledgeable stockmanship is important if bird welfare is to be safeguarded and consistently high levels of performance are to be achieved
  2. The Co-op was the first retailer in 1995 to label battery hens as 'Intensively Produced' - a trail-blazing decision which, at the time, was technically illegal. The Co-op now clearly label battery eggs as being 'From Caged Hens' despite the fact that 50 per cent of eggs they sell use this method of production
  3. ent place in recent discussions o
  4. Dog Owners Hope to Bring Pups Into Work in the UK. Battery hens are kept in cages so small that This process of killing animals is illegal for pigs and cows, however chickens are not.

The British Hen Welfare Trust (BHWT) is hosting a re-homing event in Stamford on September 16 and the plan is to save a total of 200 hens who would otherwise face slaughter. Homes are still needed. Unlike battery hens, cage-free hens are able to walk, spread their wings and lay their eggs in nests, vital natural behaviors denied to hens confined in cages. Most cage-free hens live in very large flocks that can consist of many thousands of hens who never go outside. The vast majority of cage-free hens live on farms that are 3 rd -party. Is it legal to kill a fox in the UK? Yes. Foxes are classed as pests in the UK and killing them is quite legal. However it must be done humanely and for legitimate pest-control purposes. Hunting them with dogs is illegal, as is using poison, self-.. And when they're removed from the battery cage, sadly things don't get better — many hens sustain injuries and broken bones when pulled out to be trucked to slaughter. The term 'manure pit' pretty much speaks for itself. Beneath the tiers of battery cages is a big pit that catches the faeces of the countless stressed out birds above

I've also been able to see the colony-style enriched battery cages on a working farm in the UK - the type being installed and touted by U.S. egg producers as colony barns. (Colony cages/barns in the EU can hold any number of hens as long as there's the required 750 square centimeters - 116 square inches - of floor space for each. Chickens, pigs, cattle and other animals raised for meat or some other reason are all bred and raised through battery farming. There are many battery farming pros and cons. Environmentalists and animal rights activities have their stand. Companies that have invested fortunes in battery farming have their own reasons to support the practice About 376 million hens are raised for eggs in the U.S., and most spend their lives in battery cages, stacked tier upon tier in huge warehouses. 8,9 Millions of day-old male chicks are killed (usually in a high-speed grinder called a macerator) every year because they are worthless to the egg industry. 10 The wire mesh of the cages rubs. Battery cages. Battery cages give chickens a space smaller than an A4 sheet of paper and were banned in the UK, and across the EU, in 2012. Egg producers are now required to provide hens with larger, so-called enriched cage systems, which include nesting and scratching areas that allow more natural behaviour Unlike tiny battery cages which housed four or five birds, the new vast cages have up to 80 hens. They provide more space, perches, nest boxes, mats for scratching and places to sharpen claws

Demand UK End Intensive Battery Farming and Create Compassionate Farming. The responsible department in UK: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. We live in the modern world of 2011 and we are fast moving towards 2012, we have so many world problems with global warming and health problems Ex Battery Hens - The Hen Rehoming Hub. Nonprofit Organization. Keighley Fresh Start For Hens. Community Organization. Homeless Narrowboat Engineer Lee. News Personality. Stray Dogs Law UK. Pet Service. Regency Gardens Pet Haven. Pet Service. Safe Haven Wildlife Sanctuary. Animal Shelter. Lauras Chicks. Agricultural Cooperative. GMP Wigan West Eggs from caged hens would be phased out by 2036 under a major plan to end the practice of keeping poultry in battery cages across the country The legislation meant that barren battery cages had to be replaced with enriched cages, with more space and height, a nesting area, scratching area and perches for the hens. In the UK producers have installed larger 'colony' cages housing between 40-80 birds, which allows better use of the shared space

The US has promised to stop caging hens

  1. At its height, battery eggs accounted for 96% of all UK egg production. As many of you know, the ban didn't include a new type of cage. Now, around 20% of UK eggs are laid by hens enduring a year or more incarcerated in so-called enriched or colony cages. There can be any number of hens in the cage - 60-80 seems a popular figure
  2. Free I have 3 ex battery hens, approx 2.5 years old, lovely temprement, still occasional layers, I can no longer house them - free to collect from Seaford East Susse
  3. Whilst traditional battery cages were banned across the EU on 1 January 2012, most of these were simply replaced with 'enriched' or 'colony' cages. These new cages house around 60-80 hens each and are only required to provide 750cm 2 per bird - an area barely larger than that of an A4 sheet of paper and only seven per cent more space.
  4. Bede Carmody says seeing battery chickens in cages made him realise he too was living a limited existence. It inspired him to come out and tell the world he was gay (Picture: Deni Kirkova) A gay.
  5. National plan to allow battery cages until 2036 favours cheap eggs over animal welfare. Eggs laid by battery hens would be phased out within 15 years under a plan to improve poultry welfare in Australia. The proposal signals some relief for the 15 million or so egg-laying hens still kept in battery cages in Australia. But it doesn't go far.

Two injured battery hens rescued from a caged egg farm in NSW. (UK), explores the current status of hen and chick welfare in Australia, and how we compare globally. and currently condones. The United Kingdom Farm Animal Welfare Committee developed the Five Freedoms3 as a basic standard of animal welfare assessment.4 There is an extensive body of scientific evidence confirming that birds confined in battery cages experience pain and suffering, depriving battery cage hens of these basic Five Freedoms. By way of example £2.50 Ex battery hens, £2.50 each, Long eaton area Good layers But three systems are particularly cruel -- gestation crates for pregnant pigs, veal crates for calves, and battery cages for laying hens. As of Jan. 1, all three are illegal across Europe, and it is past time for the United States and Canada to follow suit

Animal welfare campaigners attack Tesco over "cruel" Asian

> illegal unless it is being used for emergency service purposes. I've seen a number of novelty vehicles used for hen nights, etc. that have blue lights. e.g. pink fire engine or stretched police limo. One vehicle I saw even had their blue lights flashing Hybrid chickens are a cross bred mixture of two or more pure breeds, most commonly Rhode Island, Sussex and Leghorns. These cross breeds have hybrid vigour and resistance to disease as well as being very good egg layers. Because of the way they are raised hybrids are docile and have very goos food to egg convertion ratios The systems which remain in use are: enriched cages where laying hens have at least 750 cm² of cage area per hen. alternative systems where the stocking density does not exceed 9 laying hens per m² usable area, with at least one nest for every 7 hens and adequate perches. Whichever system is used, all hens must have a nest, perching space. Our inference that illegal killing is responsible for these losses matches previous studies that have highlighted illegal killing of hen battery voltage. Hen Harriers in the United Kingdom. Enriched colony cages - the facts. In January 2012 battery cages were banned in the UK. There are now only three higher welfare methods of egg production in the UK: free range, barn and enriched colony cage. The enriched colony was developed to meet an EU directive that came into law in 1999 and replaced all battery cages from January 2012

Battery farms exist across the world, and the majority of egg-laying hens in the US are battery, despite bans in some states. In the EU, barren battery cages are banned in favour of 'enriched' cages, though these only provide 600cm² of usable space: less than an A4 size of paper. Meanwhile, some farms have been known to break the ban and. Rats, Mice and your Chickens (See Video below)Rats are always there, the hen food attracts them. When you decide and announce you are going to keep Chickens in your Garden, you can almost hear a few comments from the Neighbours about the certainty of being overcome with Rats and other pests Cage-free vs Free-range. At any given time, there are about 300 million egg-laying hens on farms in the U.S. A majority of these birds are kept in battery cages—small enclosures where several birds are crammed in. Caged birds suffer from poor living conditions—they have no room to move around, their stress levels are very high and, not surprisingly, they are aggressive toward each other The directive bans the use of battery cages for hens, and requires at least 750 square centimeters of cage space per hen.That's good for the hens, but not so much for the people working on this farm, says the owner of the Eierveiling Egg Farm, Michel Van Hees.Some European producers, especially medium and small, will completely stop producing eggs, predicts secretary general of the. Code of practice. CIWF now wants laws to improve the welfare of the 800 million broiler chickens reared for meat every year in the UK. Study found chickens look for pain relief. It is urging Farm Animal Welfare Minister, Elliot Morley, to back Labour MP Ann Clwyd's private members Bill when it is debated in the Commons on Friday, 7 April

Video: Battery caged hens egg import ban considered - BBC New

Durham Hens sells quality laying hens, pure breed chicks and hatching eggs. Poultry supplies including plastic hen houses, drinkers, feeders, poultry leg rings, health care products, Garvo chicken feeds, Brinsea incubators, gift vouchers. We offer courses for beginners and a professional boarding service for hens An electric wire running across the top of a 6 foot fence to stop determined foxes. Chicken wire needs to be burried at least 6 inches with another couple of inches turned outwards but if the soil is loose, you may need to go down 9 inches or more. A fox can run up a fence (don't think of a fox being like a dog, they can move more like a cat. People are treated like battery hens. They're locked in. There are guards. They leave at 5.30-6am, they go home at 6-7pm in the evening, or later if they are forced to work overtime, often unpaid, the general secretary of the ITUC, Sharan Burrow, was quoted as saying by the Guardian Hens in furnished cages had a similar percentage of hens with recent keel fractures which are usually caused during depopulation (3.6%) compared to hens in barn (1.2%) and free-range systems (1.3%), all of which were considerably lower than in hens from battery cages (24.6%). Furthermore, hens in furnished cages had a smaller percentage of old. Chickens are exposed to many more risks when they have to fend for themselves. Therefore, it's uncommon for them to live long out in the wild. After all, they will be more likely to fall victim to predators and the elements than if they were being raised in captivity. The average wild chicken will only live for about a year or two, if that

Colony cages. Whilst battery cages will be made illegal in the region next year, colony cages will remain in place. Within each cage, up to 80 hens are compacted together - with the space of just an A4 piece of paper. 'In New Zealand, over 1.2 million hens are not afforded these basic freedoms because they are intensively farmed in colony. 'battery hens' 'The European Commission recently announced an end to the cramped conditions suffered by hens housed in battery cages.' 'But, if animal welfare is the aim, Parliament should be legislating on intensive animal farming methods and battery chickens raised in windowless warehouses. The UK-Australia trade deal is a disaster for animal rights. The Government is breaking its manifesto promise about protecting animal welfare. by Kristina Murkett. Beef cattle can be transported for up to 48 hours without food or water in Australia. Yesterday the UK agreed a historic free-trade deal with Australia, and while much has been. Battery definition: Batteries are small devices that provide the power for electrical items such as torches... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example Bat·ter·y also Bat·ter·y Park (băt′ə-rē) A park at the southern tip of Manhattan Island at the upper end of New York Bay in southeast New York. It is the site of early Dutch and English fortifications and of Castle Clinton, built in 1808 for the defense of the harbor. bat·ter·y (băt′ə-rē) n. pl. bat·ter·ies 1. Electricity A device.

Beak Trimming - the facts! - British Hen Welfare Trus

Ex-Battery hens lead a terribly miserable life and the space these girls have (or don't have!) in their cage truly needs seeing to believe. Personally, I have found an appreciation of what free-range really means by seeing how we have farmed chickens so intensively. By keeping some chickens in the back garden, you are able to enhance their. To keep laying, your hens need be fed a good quality balanced diet twice a day. If your hens are ex-battery animals you will need to wean them off the mash they have been fed and onto Layers Crumble or Pellets, these contain all the nutrients they need. On average each hen will consume between 100g - 150g (3½oz - 5¼oz per day throughout. The DURHAM HEN HOUSEis suitable for up to 12 hens according to current guidelines, used by most hen house manufacturers (1 square foot per hen). We recommend it for up to 8 standard-sized hens as hens are much happier in a spacious environment. FREE DELIVERYto most of mainland UK. If you would like more items, please order them separately to. The prime minister laid out a plan for easing lockdow Won't somebody please think of the children!!! UK to mount fresh assault on end-to-end encryption in Facebook . UK Home Secretary Priti Patel will badmouth Facebook's use of end-to-end encryption on Monday evening as she links the security technology with paedophilia, terrorism, organised crime, and so on

What are Battery Hens? (with pictures

All these hens are real and living happily in Lincolnshire and surrounding counties. Please also become a fan of this application so we can spread the word about the poor conditions of the battery hens. The illnesses we discover some of these hens have upon being rescued, and the fact that these ill hens have been supplying YOUR eggs The solar powered tag battery drained before accurate location data could be gathered allowing her to be found, but after coming online again in May 2019 enough information was provided to locate her remains. A recent study showed that 72% of tagged British hen harriers are confirmed or considered very likely to have been illegally killed

Most people in the UK think the shooting of birds for 'sport' should be banned. YouGov polling shows that shows that nearly seven out of ten people (69%) want it made illegal. The poll, commissioned by the League Against Cruel Sports and Animal Aid, comes ahead of the start of the grouse shooting season in Scotland - the so-called. Hong Kong's human battery hens: Claustrophobic images show how slum families squeeze their lives into the tiniest apartments Bird's-eye images released by social group documenting plight of. In order to access the coop, which normally houses over 30 rescued battery chickens, You can register to rehome battery chickens from the British Hen Welfare Trust (www.bhwt.org.uk) for a small donation (around pounds 3-pounds 4 per hen). Why more of us are keeping garden hens; WILDLIFE The hen house conditions for organic hens are set by the EU Organic Regulations and stipulate a maximum stocking density of 6 hens per square metre of useable area and a maximum flock size of.

Yes, it is legal to overfly a neighbor's, or a stranger's, property if it's not in an otherwise restricted area. The airspace over a property is an easement and the FAA allows planes and helicopters to fly over it, generally above 500′ for piloted.. Give a Hen a Homes intention is to raise funds to help rehome more hens to schools helping to make hen keeping accessible to all. Hens can be a great addition to schools when integrated into daily school life and into the curriculum helping children back to nature along the lines of Forest School lessons whilst learning responsibility and. Bret Smith, the facility's operator and brother of Darrell Smith, the slaughterhouse owner who is also Draper's mayor, leaned over from the driver's seat, filming her with a phone camera as. Blood sports have been illegal in the UK for years, what this poll is referring to are field sports, however blood sports do still happen, i.e fox hunting, badger baiting, hare coursing and so on. These are cruel and highly unnecessary, as the animals are not killed quickly Genetically Modified Chickens. Today's broiler chickens have been bred selectively since the 1950s to produce meat—breast meat in particular—and to produce it quickly. A modern meat chicken.

Court issues notice against confinement of egg laying hens in battery cages. The Times of India. Retrieved on 29 May 2020. Vishwa Mohad (2 May 2019). Draft rules prohibit keeping hens in cramped 'battery cages'. The Times of India. Retrieved on 29 May 2020. Neha Madaan (26 February 2017). Poultry industry uses battery cages despite. Since the 1990s there have been a number of government and market led initiatives to improve the welfare of layer hens in the United Kingdom, Australia and the USA. The focus of these regulatory and market initiatives has been a shift away from the dominant battery-cage system to enriched cages, barn/aviary and free-range production systems Go visit the Battery Hen Welfare Trust website (bhwt.org.uk) :j . 0. Tried to find ex battery hens with no joy it would appear that you have to register and wait. so tomorrow morning at 10am I will be the proud owner of 3 black rock organic hens. thanks to you all for your response

Egg farm kept hens in cruelly overcrowded cages without

Battery cage - Wikipedi

Poultry farming is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising birds (typically chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese) and harvesting their meat or eggs. Poultry farmers are responsible for the slaughter of tens of billions of birds per year. Disease runs rampant in the poultry farming industry, and chickens are regularly abused The Little Red Hen by Joseph Jacobs . There once was a farm with a big red barn. And in that big red barn, there lived many animals, the smallest of which, was a little red hen. The little red hen may have been little, but she was the most active resident of the farm People hunt and kill animals for sport in many parts of the world. This raises many issues, some of which were brought to the fore when a lion Panthera leo, nicknamed Cecil, was killed by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in 2015.Cecil's death led to an unprecedented public reaction in Europe and the USA, and a debate in which opponents and supporters of sport hunting advanced different types of.

Call-in Numbers: 917-633-8191 / 201-880-5508. Now Playing. Title Artis battery (countable and uncountable, plural batteries) (countable, electronics) A device used to power electric devices, consisting of a set of electrically connected electrochemical or, archaically, electrostatic cells.A single such cell when used by itself. 1749 Benjamin Franklin, letter to Peter Collinson Upon this We made what we call'd an Electrical Battery, consisting of eleven Panes of.

Iowa Votes to Keep Hens in Cages | Nellie's Free RangeVIDEO: Inside an illegal Italian egg farm - Farmers WeeklyNew EU egg laws put farmers in firing line — RT World News

Hen Keeping Starter Guide British Hen Welfare Trus

The Egg Industry. In 2017, about 319 million laying hens produced more than 92 billion eggs in the US. 4 The top five egg-producing states include Iowa, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania and Texas. As animal agriculture goes, the egg industry is less concentrated than most: in 2017, the top five egg producers controlled the output of 36 percent of hens Page 4. Message withdrawn at poster's request. Have your say, get notified on what matters to you and see fewer ads. Register no OK, here's the deal. Off grid living is illegal. Sometimes. Let's start off by clearing up some misconceptions. In its most simplistic definition, off grid living means being disconnected from the public power grid. Off grid living, by itself, is not technically illegal.Producing your own power is off grid living and perfectly legal battery - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free Chickens grown commercially for meat typically spend their lives confined to warehouse-like buildings, each packed with as many as 20,000 chickens. While they are not usually confined to battery cages like egg-laying hens are, the average amount of space they inhabit is basically the same—comparable to a sheet of letter-size paper

Battery hen rules may undercut UK egg producers, MPs warn

Releasing Domestic Ducks into the Wild

The Battery Hen Down the Lan

About egg laying hens Compassion in World Farmin

Battery definition is - the act of beating someone or something with successive blows : the act of battering. How to use battery in a sentence a battery hen; battery eggs; intensive battery farming methods; compare free-range Topics Farming c2 [uncountable] (law) the crime of attacking somebody physically. He was charged with battery after a fight at a night club. see also assault and battery Topics Crime and punishment c